Vocabulary power unit 4 lesson 15 answer key

Vocabulary power unit 4 lesson 15 answer key DEFAULT

Category: Vocabulary power unit 4 lesson 15 answer key

Vi Grade 9 Vocabulary Power Vocabulary Power Unit 3, Lesson 9 Vocabulary Power Unit 3, Lesson. This Vocabulary Power workbook gives you the practice you need to expand your vocabulary Unit Review. Unit Test. Use your understanding of the boldfaced vocabulary word in your answer.

She was rejuvenated, resigned, recuperated to continuing as vice. This Vocabulary Power workbook gives you the practice you need to expand Vocabulary Power.

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Copyright by The. This Vocabulary Power workbook gives you the practice you need to expand your vocabulary and improve your Unit 1. Lesson 1. Using Context Clues.

Unit 2. Lesson 5. Using Synonyms. Circle the letter of the answer that best completes each sentence. A key to interpreting the notes appears at the begin. Review Circle the letter of the answer that best completes each sentence. Answer Key. Unit 2 Genetic Processes.Vi Grade 9 Vocabulary Power Vocabulary Power Unit 3, Lesson 9 Vocabulary Power Unit 3, Lesson. This Vocabulary Power workbook gives you the practice you need to expand Unit Review. Unit Test. Vocabulary Power.

Copyright by The. This Vocabulary Power workbook gives you the practice you need to expand your vocabulary Use your understanding of the boldfaced vocabulary word in your answer. She was rejuvenated, resigned, recuperated to continuing as vice.

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This Vocabulary Power workbook gives you the practice you need to expand your vocabulary and improve your Unit 1. Lesson 1. Using Context Clues. Unit 2. Lesson 5. Using Synonyms. Circle the letter of the answer that best completes each sentence. A key to interpreting the notes appears at the begin. Review Circle the letter of the answer that best completes each sentence. This Vocabulary Power workbook gives you the practice you need to expand your Read the clues and answer each question. Vis, vid is a Latin root meaning.

Vocabulary Power Unit 1, Lesson 1 Explain your answers. Answer Key. Unit 2 Genetic Processes. Unit Preparation Questions. Assessing Readiness. Student textbook pages Prefix and base word meanings are provided. Their reading and writing. Vocabulary is not about teaching just words.All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act ofno part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Teaching and Assessing Vocabulary. Pronunciation Guide. Research shows that reading comprehension improves when students have a strong oral and print vocabulary. By providing students with word-study opportunities, you can encourage students to develop a love of language and an ongoing curiosity about words, their origins, and their multiple meanings and usages. The vocabulary word lists, skills-practice exercises, reviews, and tests provided in this Vocabulary Power workbook may be used for systematic vocabulary instruction, enabling students to expand their vocabularies, develop a deeper understanding of language, and improve their reading comprehension.

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The vocabulary teaching, word lists, and exercise types in Vocabulary Power have been carefully selected on the basis of current research in word study.

Johnson and P. Lesson Structure Each vocabulary lesson begins with a brief introduction focusing on a single vocabulary concept or principle or on a theme that ties together the words intended for study. An alphabetized pronunciation guide for all vocabulary words may be found at the end of this workbook.

Since students build vocabulary with repeated encounters with new words, a set of exercises follows the Word Bank. These exercises give students opportunities to learn the words by predicting mean- ing and then searching for definitions in the dictionary; by analyzing context clues such as synonyms, antonyms, defini- tions, and examples and then using the words in context; and by unlocking the meanings of words through structural analysis of word parts such as prefixes, suffixes, and roots.

Assessment Frequent assessment is an integral part of vocabulary instruction.

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In addition, assessments provide students with real learning opportunities. The Reviews and Tests provided in Vocabulary Power may be used in a variety of ways to assess student achievement. The following discussion provides several suggestions for how and when to administer them. Pretest Before beginning a lesson or a unit, conduct a pretest to determine whether students already know some or all of the material and then set a course for your instruction on the basis of student performance.

Ask students to spell the word, write a definition, and use the word correctly in a sentence. You may wish to conduct this pretest orally, working with students one at a time.

Vocabulary Power Unit 4 Lesson 15 Answer Key

Keep in mind, however, that each Review covers material presented in a unit rather than in a single lesson. Monitor Progress Students should be encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning and to monitor their progress as they learn new vocabulary words and concepts.

Students should circle and then investigate those items that elicited different responses. They can add to the log other vocabulary words that they encounter in their reading. By keeping track of how students are faring, you can make accommodations in your teaching, accelerating the pace for some and slowing it down for those who need additional support. Review relevant concepts with individual students or with small groups.

vocabulary power unit 4 lesson 15 answer key

Review or reteach as necessary. Posttest At the end of a lesson or unit, conduct a posttest and record the final scores. Have students spell each word on paper, write a definition, and write a sentence that uses the word correctly in context. Record Keeping You may want to photocopy the Student Progress Chart on page vii so that you can maintain a chart for each student in your classroom.

Keep in mind that the Scoring Scale and Student Progress Chart are also available to students in their copies of this Vocabulary Power workbook.

Students should be encouraged to use these forms to monitor their own progress as they complete and score lessons and learn the results of any formal assessments you may conduct.

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Line up the number of items with the number correct. For example, if 15 out of 16 items are correct, the score is Vocabulary Power Unit 4 Lesson 15 Answer Key Each lesson focuses on a single vocabulary concept or on a theme that ties together the list of words in the Word Bank. Welcome to The Language of Literature, Grade 8. After entering all of the words, crossword solvers can just click Check Answer to see if you have successfully solved the crossword puzzle!.

Key concepts include a the motions of Earth, the moon, and the sun; b the causes for Earth's seasons; c the causes for the phases of the moon; d the relative size, position, age, and makeup of Earth, the moon, and the sun; and e historical contributions in understanding the Earth-moon-sun.

Disputatious 7. Reteach Materials; Reteach Cards - Unit 1. A: This biome is hot and wet all year.

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Tape can be found in the drawer closet to the door you enter. X has three sounds: its regular sharp sound unmarked like ks, as in expect, and its soft or flat sound like gz, as in exist, marked x. Your student masters the 5, words most frequently used and misspelled by children and adults using the specially developed Flow-Word-Lists and a series of six reviews built into Spelling Power.

Journal Labels - Unit 4. Lesson 25 Test. Answer spaces can now be marked either with the word itself or with a number or letter so that a Scantron machine or answer key can be used for easy grading.

Studying the material that was covered in the course is the best way to know the answers. Two examples are the evolution of the Gal pagos finches and the evolution of domestic dogs. Students will use independent and group work, vocabulary charts, graphic organizers, reading skills, and writing skills to analyze and.

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Unit 4 - Acquire knowledge of the impact of government on business activities to make informed economic decisions. Parliament The word branch should have a sentence whose meaning corresponds with: The parts of a tree; A local office of a business; Something that extends out from a main source or line. Show your students how fun vocabulary practice can be. During the lesson, students build their vocabulary by using word webs to help them learn the meanings of different Greek and Latin roots and common prefixes.The lodgings were great to satisfactory, the flexibility in our occasional re-routing or slowing down really was an amazing help as we explored this wonderful island.

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vocabulary power unit 4 lesson 15 answer key

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Vocab Powers

Citation preview

GLENCOE LANGUAGE ARTS

VOCABULARY POWER T EACHER A NNOTATED E DITION G RADE 8

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240 ISBN 0-07-826229-1 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 024 05 04 03 02 01

CONTENTS Teaching and Assessing Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v Student Progress Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii Scoring Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii

Unit 1 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Review Test

Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Word Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Word Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Using Reference Skills—Using a Dictionary Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

Unit 2 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Lesson 9 Review Test

Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Recognizing Base Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Prefixes That Mean “not” or “the opposite of” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Using Reading Skills—Learning from Context: Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Unit 3 Lesson 10 Lesson 11 Lesson 12 Lesson 13 Lesson 14 Review Test

Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Prefixes That Tell Where . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Greek Word Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Suffixes That Form Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Using Reference Skills—Using a Thesaurus: Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33

Unit 4 Lesson 15 Lesson 16 Lesson 17 Lesson 18 Review Test

Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Using Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Prefixes That Tell When . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Using Reading Skills—Learning from Context: Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43

Unit 5 Lesson 19 Lesson 20 Lesson 21 Lesson 22 Lesson 23 Review Test

Using Context Clues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Latin Word Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Suffixes That Form Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Using Reading Skills—Learning from Context: Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55

Unit 6 Lesson 24 Lesson 25 Lesson 26 Lesson 27 Lesson 28 Review Test

Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Words from Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Using Synonyms and Antonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Number Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Using Reading Skills—Using a Dictionary: Multiple-Meaning Words . . . . . . . .65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67

Unit 7 Lesson 29 Lesson 30 Lesson 31 Lesson 32 Review Test

Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Suffixes That Form Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 Compound Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Using Reading Skills—Learning from Context: Comparison and Contrast . . .75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77

Unit 8 Lesson 33 Lesson 34 Lesson 35 Lesson 36 Review Test

Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Homophones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 Borrowed Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 Using Test-Taking Skills—Analogies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87

Pronunciation Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

TEACHING AND ASSESSING VOCABULARY Research shows that reading comprehension improves when students have a strong oral and print vocabulary. By providing students with word-study opportunities, you can encourage students to develop a love of language and an ongoing curiosity about words, their origins, and their multiple meanings and usages. The vocabulary word lists, skills-practice exercises, reviews, and tests provided in this Vocabulary Power workbook may be used for systematic vocabulary instruction, enabling students to expand their vocabularies, develop a deeper understanding of language, and improve their reading comprehension. The vocabulary teaching, word lists, and exercise types in Vocabulary Power have been carefully selected on the basis of current research in word study. Sources such as Teaching Reading Vocabulary by Dale D. Johnson and P. David Pearson; Teaching Vocabulary to Improve Reading Comprehension by William E. Nagy; The Living Word, a national vocabulary inventory by Dale Edgar and Joseph O’Rourke; and various articles from the Journal of Reading have been used to help determine the course of instruction and to identify vocabulary words that students should know at each grade level. Therefore, the words selected for study in this workbook are developmentally appropriate and reflect the varied interests and vocabulary of today’s students.

Lesson Structure Each vocabulary lesson begins with a brief introduction focusing on a single vocabulary concept or principle or on a theme that ties together the words intended for study. In most lessons, the introduction is followed by a Word Bank, a list of vocabulary words that illustrate the introduction’s main idea. (An alphabetized pronunciation guide for all vocabulary words may be found at the end of this workbook.) Since students build vocabulary with repeated encounters with new words, a set of exercises follows the Word Bank. These exercises give students opportunities to learn the words by predicting meaning and then searching for definitions in the dictionary; by analyzing context clues (such as synonyms, antonyms, definitions, and examples) and then using the words in context; and by unlocking the meanings of words through structural analysis of word parts (such as prefixes, suffixes, and roots).

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Assessment Frequent assessment is an integral part of vocabulary instruction. If you evaluate students’ abilities before, during, and after a lesson or group of lessons, you can adjust your teaching to maximize classroom time. In addition, assessments provide students with real learning opportunities. Only through assessment can students discover what they already know, what they’ve mastered, and what they need to learn to ensure future success. The Reviews and Tests provided in Vocabulary Power may be used in a variety of ways to assess student achievement. The following discussion provides several suggestions for how and when to administer them. Pretest Before beginning a lesson or a unit, conduct a pretest to determine whether students already know some or all of the material and then set a course for your instruction on the basis of student performance. To conduct a pretest for any lesson in Vocabulary Power, choose one of these strategies: • Read each word in the Word Bank aloud. Ask students to spell the word, write a definition, and use the word correctly in a sentence. You may wish to conduct this pretest orally, working with students one at a time. • Use the Review as a pretest. Keep in mind, however, that each Review covers material presented in a unit rather than in a single lesson. Monitor Progress Students should be encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning and to monitor their progress as they learn new vocabulary words and concepts. Students may monitor their progress in the following ways: • After completing an exercise, students may meet with a peer to compare responses. Students should circle and then investigate those items that elicited different responses. • Students may create and maintain a chart listing exercises and scores. • Students may keep a log of troublesome vocabulary words. They can add to the log other vocabulary words that they encounter in their reading.

Vocabulary Power

Grade 8

v

You might ask students to give you periodic reports of their achievement. By keeping track of how students are faring, you can make accommodations in your teaching, accelerating the pace for some and slowing it down for those who need additional support. The following strategies may be used: • Ask students to complete the lesson exercises in class or as homework; keep track of their scores and of the vocabulary words that give students the most difficulty. Review relevant concepts with individual students or with small groups. • After students have completed the requisite number of lessons, ask them to complete the Review to see whether they are remembering the meaning and usage of the vocabulary words. Review or reteach as necessary. Posttest At the end of a lesson or unit, conduct a posttest and record the final scores. You might assess student learning in the following ways: • At the end of a unit, administer the Unit Test found in the workbook. • Have students complete the Unit Review contained in the workbook. • Administer an oral test by reading aloud the vocabulary words for a lesson or a unit. Have students spell each word on paper, write a definition, and write a sentence that uses the word correctly in context. • Have students write one or more paragraphs that correctly use vocabulary words from the lessons.

Record Keeping You may want to photocopy the Student Progress Chart on page vii so that you can maintain a chart for each student in your classroom. Whether you’re using a single five-item exercise to monitor progress or an entire Review or Test as a final assessment, use the Scoring Scale on pages viii–ix to determine percentage scores. Transfer those scores to students’ Progress Charts and then use the charts in conferences with parents and students. You may also wish to track students’ scores and vocabulary achievement using the Theme Progress Charts available in the Theme Planning Guides for The Reader’s Choice program. Keep in mind that the Scoring Scale and Student Progress Chart are also available to students in their copies of this Vocabulary Power workbook. Students should be encouraged to use these forms to monitor their own progress as they complete and score lessons and learn the results of any formal assessments you may conduct. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

vi

Grade 8

Vocabulary Power

STUDENT PROGRESS CHART Fill in the chart below with the student’s scores, using the scoring scale on the next page.

Name: ____________________________ Lesson

Unit Review

Unit Test

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1 2 3 4 5 Review Test 6 7 8 9 Review Test 10 11 12 13 14 Review Test 15 16 17 18 Review Test 19 20 21 22 Review Test 23 24 25 26 27 28 Review Test 29 30 31 32 Review Test 33 34 35 36 Review Test

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vii

SCORING SCALE Use this scale to find a student’s score. Line up the number of items with the number correct. For example, if 15 out of 16 items are correct, the score is 93.7 percent (see grayed area).

Number of Items

Number Correct 1 100 50 33.3 25 20 16.7 14.3 12.5 11.1 10 9.1 8.3 7.7 7.1 6.7 6.3 5.9 5.6 5.3 5 4.8 4.5 4.3 4.7 4 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 3 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.5

Grade 8

2

3

4

5

6

7

100 66.7 50 40 33.3 28.6 25 22.2 20 18.1 16.7 15.3 14.3 13.3 12.5 11.8 11.1 10.5 10 9.5 9.1 8.7 8.3 8 7.7 7.4 7.1 6.9 6.7 6.5 6.3 6 5.9 5.7 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.3 5

100 75 60 50 42.9 37.5 33.3 30 27.2 25 23.1 21.4 20 18.8 17.6 16.7 15.8 15 14.3 13.7 13.0 12.5 12 11.5 11.1 10.7 10.3 10 9.7 9.4 9 8.8 8.6 8.3 8.1 7.9 7.7 7.5

100 80 66.7 57.1 50 44.4 40 36.3 33.3 30.8 28.6 26.7 25 23.5 22.2 21.2 20 19 18.2 17.4 16.7 16 15.4 14.8 14.3 13.8 13.3 13 12.5 12 11.8 11.4 11.1 10.8 10.5 10.3 10

100 83.3 71.4 62.5 55.6 50 45.4 41.7 38.5 35.7 33.3 31.2 29.4 27.8 26.3 25 23.8 22.7 21.7 20.8 20 19.2 18.5 17.9 17.2 16.7 16.1 15.6 15.1 14.7 14.3 13.9 13.5 13.2 12.8 12.5

100 85.7 75 66.7 60 54.5 50 46.1 42.8 40 37.5 35.3 33.3 31.6 30 28.6 27.3 26.1 25 24 23.1 22.2 21.4 20.7 20 19.3 18.8 18.1 17.6 17.1 16.7 17.1 15.8 15.4 15

100 87.5 77.8 70 63.6 58.3 53.8 50 46.6 43.7 41.2 38.9 36.8 35 33.3 31.8 30.4 29.2 28 26.9 25.9 25 24.1 23.3 22.3 21.9 21.2 20.6 20 19.4 18.9 18.4 17.9 17.5

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

100 88.9 100 80 90 100 72.7 81.8 90.9 100 66.7 75 83.3 91.7 100 61.5 69.2 76.9 84.6 92.3 100 57.1 64.3 71.4 78.5 85.7 92.8 100 53.3 60 66.7 73.3 80 86.7 93.3 100 50 56.2 62.5 68.7 75 81.2 87.5 93.7 100 47 52.9 58.8 64.7 70.6 76.5 82.3 88.2 94.1 100 44.4 50 55.5 61.1 66.7 72.2 77.8 83.3 88.9 94.4 100 42.1 47.4 52.6 57.9 63.1 68.4 73.7 78.9 84.2 89.4 94.7 100 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 85 80 85 90 95 100 38.1 42.8 47.6 52.3 57.1 61.9 66.7 71.4 76.1 80.9 85.7 90.5 95.2 36.4 40.9 45.4 50 54.5 59.1 63.6 68.1 72.7 77.2 81.8 86.4 90.9 34.8 39.1 43.5 47.8 52.1 56.5 60.8 65.2 69.5 73.9 78.3 82.6 86.9 33.3 37.5 41.7 45.8 50 54.2 58.3 62.5 66.7 70.8 75 79.1 83.3 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 30.4 34.6 38.5 42.3 46.2 50 53.8 57.7 61.5 65.4 69.2 73.1 76.9 29.6 33.3 37 40.7 44.4 48.1 51.9 55.6 59.2 63 66.7 70.4 74.1 28.6 32.1 35.7 39.3 42.9 46.4 50 53.6 57.1 60.7 64.3 67.9 71.4 27.6 31 34.5 37.9 41.4 44.8 48.3 51.7 55.2 58.6 62.1 65.5 69 26.7 30 33.3 36.7 40 43.3 46.7 50 53.3 56.7 60 63.3 66.7 25.8 29.0 32.2 35.4 38.7 41.9 45.1 48.3 51.6 54.8 58 61.2 64.5 25 28.1 31.3 34.4 37.5 40.6 43.8 46.9 50 53.1 56.2 59.4 62.5 24.2 27.2 30.3 33 36.3 39.3 42.4 45.4 48.4 51.5 54.5 57.5 60.6 23.5 26.5 29.4 32.4 35.3 38.2 41.2 44.1 47.1 50 52.9 55.9 58.8 22.9 25.7 28.6 31.4 34.3 37.1 40 42.9 45.7 48.6 51.4 54.3 57.1 22.2 25 27.8 30.6 33.3 36.1 38.9 41.7 44.4 47.2 50 52.7 55.6 21.6 24.3 27 29.7 32.4 35.1 37.8 40 43.2 45.9 48.6 51.4 54 21.1 23.7 26.3 28.9 31.6 34.2 36.8 39.5 42.1 44.7 47.4 50 52.6 20.5 23.1 25.6 28.2 30.8 33.3 35.9 38.5 41.0 43.6 46.2 48.7 51.3 20 22.5 25 27.5 30 32.5 35 37.5 40 42.5 45 47.5 50

Vocabulary Power

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

viii

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Number of Items

Number Correct 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

100 95.4 91.3 87.5 84 80.8 77.8 75 72.4 70 67.7 65.6 63.6 61.8 60 58.3 56.8 55.3 53.8 52.5

100 95.6 91.6 88 84.6 81.5 78.6 75.9 73.3 70.9 68.8 66.7 64.7 62.9 61.1 59.5 57.9 56.4 55

100 95.8 92 88.5 85.2 82.1 79.3 76.7 74.2 71.9 69.7 67.6 65.7 63.8 62.2 60.5 58.9 57.5

100 96 92.3 88.9 85.7 82.8 80 77.4 75 72.7 70.6 68.9 66.7 64.9 63.2 61.5 60

100 96.2 92.6 89.3 86.2 83.3 80.6 78.1 75.8 73.5 71.4 69.4 67.6 65.8 64.1 62.5

100 96.3 92.9 89.7 86.7 83.9 81.2 78.8 76.5 74.3 72.2 70.3 68.4 66.7 65

100 96.4 93.1 90 87.1 84.4 81.8 79.3 77.1 75 72.9 71.2 69.2 67.5

Vocabulary Power

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

100 96.6 100 93.3 96.7 100 90.3 93.5 96.7 100 87.5 90.6 93.8 96.9 100 84.8 87.8 90.9 93.9 96.9 100 82.4 85.3 88.2 91.2 94.1 97.1 100 80 82.9 85.7 88.6 91.4 94.3 97.1 100 77.8 80.6 85.7 86.1 88.9 91.7 94.9 97.2 100 75.7 78.4 81.1 83.8 86.5 89.2 91.9 94.6 97.3 100 73.7 76.3 78.9 81.6 84.2 86.8 89.5 92.1 94.7 97.3 100 71.8 74.4 76.9 79.5 82.1 84.6 87.2 89.7 92.3 94.9 97.4 100 70 72.5 75 77.5 80 82.5 85 87.5 90 92.5 95 97.5

40

100

Grade 8

ix

Name  Date 

Lesson 1

Class 

Using Synonyms

Home is a place that contains many kinds of memories—some good, some painful, some humorous, some sad. Different kinds of memories help make up our idea of home. In this lesson, you’ll learn some words to use when you want to talk about what home means to you. Word List

anonymous

hysteria

tranquillity

wholesome

awed

lurch

valid

woe

humility

perish

EXERCISE A

Synonyms Sample synonyms and dictionary definitions are provided.

Synonyms are words with similar meanings. Each boldfaced word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think of other words related to the synonym and write them on the line provided. Then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. perish : die Synonyms include to end, be finished, expire. Dictionary definition perish: to disappear or cease to exist 2. woe : sadness Synonyms include suffering from misfortune, grief, unhappiness. Dictionary definition woe: sorrow, deep suffering 3. tranquillity : peacefulness Synonyms include calm, serenity, free from bother, undisturbed.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Dictionary definition tranquillity: being free from disturbance 4. lurch : stagger Synonyms include to stumble, fall, ungraceful movement. Dictionary definition lurch: to jerk, sudden roll 5. hysteria : uncontrollable emotion Synonyms include craziness, going off the deep end, over the top. Dictionary definition hysteria: excessive emotional disturbance 6. humility : lack of pride Synonyms include submissiveness, not arrogant. Dictionary definition humility: quality of being humble, unpretentiousness 7. anonymous : unknown Synonyms include secret, unnamed, in the dark. Dictionary definition anonymous: not named or identified 8. awed : admiring Synonyms include overwhelmed, impressed, stunned, blown away. Dictionary definition awed: expressing the emotion in which fear, respect, and wonder are mixed

Vocabulary Power

Unit 1, Lesson 1

1

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Class 

continued

9. wholesome : healthy Synonyms include good for you, nutritious, beneficial, positive, sound. Dictionary definition wholesome: promoting health of body or spirit Synonyms include correct, good, appropriate, official.

10. valid : proper

Dictionary definition valid: generally accepted, officially approved EXERCISE B

Sentence Completion

Write the vocabulary word that best completes each sentence. humility 1. Despite her impressive accomplishments, the scientist kept her attitude of ________________. awed 2. We were definitely ________________ the first time we visited the Capitol Building in

Washington, D.C. perish 3. “My heart is broken,” sighed the heroine of the drama, “and I know I shall ________________

before the sun rises.” valid 4. Anyone who wishes to try out for the soccer team must have a(n) ________________

certificate of good health from a doctor. woe 5. The Bosnian people suffered much ________________ in the brutal war. hysteria 6. As the asteroid approached Earth, the people’s ________________ grew. lurch 7. The engine started at last and the moped began to ________________ forward. anonymous 8. The person who donated $10,000 wished to remain ________________. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

wholesome 9. It’s important that the food you eat is ________________ and fresh. tranquillity 10. After an especially busy day, I enjoy the ________________ of lying on my bed listening to

some quiet music.

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Unit 1, Lesson 1

Vocabulary Power

Name  Date 

Lesson 2

Class 

Using Synonyms

As Dorothy learned in The Wizard of Oz, there really is no place like home. One of the reasons each home is unique is that each person who helps create a home is unique. The words in this lesson relate to the special place we call home. Word List

alliance

indifference

simultaneous

urban

alternative

meager

taunt

varied

commence

portray

EXERCISE A

Synonyms Sample synonyms and dictionary definitions are provided.

Each boldfaced word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think of other words related to the synonym and write them on the line provided. Then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. taunt : tease Synonyms include to mock, insult, make fun of, jeer, disrespect. Dictionary definition taunt: to ridicule, challenge in an insulting manner 2. indifference : lack of preference Synonyms include lack of compulsion toward one thing or another. Dictionary definition indifference: having no preference in a matter 3. commence : begin Synonyms include to start, get going, get the show on the road.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Dictionary definition commence: to begin 4. meager : thin Synonyms include slim, scanty, not much, few, sparse. Dictionary definition meager: falling short of what is needed, lacking richness 5. simultaneous : at the same time Synonyms include contemporary. Dictionary definition simultaneous: occurring at the same time 6. urban : city Synonyms include nonfarm, nonrural, downtown. Dictionary definition urban: relating to a city 7. varied : different Synonyms include diverse, various. Dictionary definition varied: differing in some way 8. alliance : association Synonyms include bond, agreement, arrangement. Dictionary definition alliance: bond or connection between people, nations, or other groups

Vocabulary Power

Unit 1, Lesson 2

3

Name  Date 

Class 

continued

9. alternative : choice Synonyms include option, choice, preference, selection. Dictionary definition alternative: one of two or more things that can be selected 10. portray : picture Synonyms include to depict, represent, make a portrait of. Dictionary definition portray: to make a picture or description of EXERCISE B

Sentence Completion

Write the vocabulary word that best completes the sentence. simultaneous 1. Because the two soccer games were ________________, we could not watch them both. commence 2. “What time does the movie ________________?” Jason asked, worried about being late. indifference 3. Whether Shawna comes to the party is a matter of complete ________________ to most of

the club members. alliance 4. The two countries formed a secret ________________ to defend each other in case of military

attack. varied 5. The menu choices were extremely ________________. I found several things I wanted to order. EXERCISE C

Usage

Answer the questions based on your understanding of the boldfaced word. Student answers will vary.

1. Do you think a meager meal would satisfy you if you were very hungry? Why or why not?

2. What are some advantages to living in an urban setting? What are some disadvantages? Advantages are closeness to culture and entertainment and a great diversity of people; disadvantages are pollution, crime, and congestion.

3. How would you respond if someone were to taunt you at school? Just walk away and avoid the person in the future.

4. Name a film, TV show, or book that you feel accurately portrays teenage life. Why did you choose this particular film, TV show, or book? Dawson’s Creek, because it shows both the positives and negatives of being a teenager

5. What do you feel is a good alternative to settling disputes with violence? Explain your answer. peer mediation, because it breaks the cycle of meeting violence with violence

4

Unit 1, Lesson 2

Vocabulary Power

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

no, because meager means insufficient

Name  Date 

Lesson 3

Class 

Word Parts

The main meaning of a word is contained in its root or base word. Base words are roots that are complete words. Prefixes can be affixed to the beginning and suffixes to the end of the root to change its meaning. Knowing the meanings of word roots, prefixes, and suffixes can help you make an educated guess about the meaning of a new word. In this lesson, you’ll identify some common roots, prefixes, and suffixes and learn how they work together to give meaning to words. Word List

adjourn

dramatize

mutation

precedence

anthropology

monotonous

perception

secluded

circumnavigate

mutate

EXERCISE A Word Association

Read the clues. Then, answer the question. Sample answers are provided.

1. The root of mutation comes from mutare, the Latin word for “change.” If you add the noun suffix -ion to this root, what might be the word’s meaning? a change or transformation

2. Certain suffixes can change the part of speech of a word root. For example, -ate placed at the end of a root forms a verb. How would you define mutate? Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

to change form, transform

3. The suffix -ion makes a root a noun. To perceive is “to observe.” If you add the suffix -ion, what might perception mean? observation, interpretation of environment through sensory inputs

4. Prefixes can be affixed to the beginning of roots to change their meanings. The root jour/journ means “day.” Adding the Latin prefix ad-, meaning “to” or “toward,” creates the word adjourn, which probably means “to another day,” or to postpone, move, change the date

5. Some words are formed without prefixes or suffixes by combining two roots. The Greek root anthrop/anthropo means “human being.” The root logy comes from the Greek word for “word” and now means “study” or “science.” What is anthropology? the study of human beings Vocabulary Power

Unit 1, Lesson 3

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continued

6. The prefix mono- means “one.” The Greek root ton means “tone” or “sound.” The suffix -ous forms an adjective. If someone’s speech is monotonous, how might you describe it? “one-toned,” boring, without variation

7. The Latin word for boat is navis. Adding a verb suffix to this root forms the word navigate. If the Latin prefix circum- means “around,” what might you be doing if you circumnavigate the world? “sail” around, go around

8. Some words have both prefixes and suffixes added to roots. The root cede/cess comes from the Latin for “go.” Pre- is a prefix meaning “before,” while -ence is a noun suffix. What might the word precedence mean? something that “goes before,” priority of importance

9. Another verb suffix is -ize. Our word root drama means the same as the Greek word drama, which comes from the word for “do” or “act.” What would you do if you were to dramatize a story? write it in play form, present as a play

10. The root clude comes from the Latin word for “close.” The prefix se- means “apart” or “away from.” If a cabin is secluded, what other words could you use to describe it? isolated, off by itself, separated from other things EXERCISE B

6

Unit 1, Lesson 3

Vocabulary Power

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Word Webs Choose a root, prefix, and suffix from those you learned about in this lesson. On a separate sheet of paper, draw three word webs like the one shown below. In the first, write the root. In the next two webs, write the prefix and suffix. Fill in the “rays” with as many words as you can that contain that root, prefix, or suffix. Then, exchange webs with a partner and discuss the meanings of the words you have listed. Student answers will vary.

Name  Date 

Lesson 4

Class 

Word Families

Word families are groups of words that contain the same roots or base words. Base words are roots that are complete words. The root or base word gives a word its main meaning. A prefix or suffix combined with the root or base word gives it a different meaning. In this lesson, you’ll learn words in the same word families. Word List

belligerent

document

itinerary

levity

compel

impulsive

levitate

rebellious

doctrine

initiative

EXERCISE A

Base Words and Word Roots

Look up each boldfaced word in a dictionary and write its meaning. Then, use the information in the dictionary entry to underline the root or base word.

1. rebellious rebellious: in strong disagreement with, defiant 2. belligerent belligerent: waging war, aggressive, hostile, having a fighting attitude 3. doctrine doctrine: principle, belief, set of beliefs 4. document document: to furnish evidence or proof, support with facts

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. levity levity: lack of seriousness 6. levitate levitate: to rise or float in the air 7. initiative initiative: energy to begin a task on one’s own, ability to self-start 8. itinerary itinerary: route of a journey 9. impulsive impulsive: spontaneous, tending to act without forethought 10. compel compel: to force, make something happen, cause to occur EXERCISE B

Sentence Completion

Write the vocabulary word that best completes the sentence. initiative 1. Ms. Jackson said she was proud of the class for taking the ________________ in solving the

problem of litter around the school building and sports fields. levity 2. The clowns’ performance ended the evening on a note of ________________, very different

from the show’s sober beginning. Vocabulary Power

Unit 1, Lesson 4

7

Name  Date 

Class 

continued

Doctrine 3. The television program was about the Truman ________________ , President Harry Truman’s

belief that the United States had to oppose the Soviet Union following World War II. compel 4. You can lead a horse to water, but you certainly can’t ________________ it to drink! rebellious 5. The government soldiers had a difficult time defeating the ________________ forces in battle

because they often disappeared into the jungle. levitate 6. “For my final trick, I shall make my assistant ________________ in the air above the audience!”

announced the magician. document 7. You will never convince the judge unless you are able to ________________ your charges,

proving that they are true. itinerary 8. Will the Grand Canyon be on your ________________ for your camping trip? impulsive 9. We all felt that Rebecca was ________________ when she volunteered for the committee

without even knowing what she would have to do. belligerent 10. I could tell the dog was very ________________ by the way it barked viciously at everyone

who walked by its yard. EXERCISE C

Student answers will vary.

Answer each question based on your understanding of the boldfaced vocabulary word. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. What are some situations when levity is out of place?

2. What places would be on the itinerary for your dream vacation?

3. What might be a reason some people are belligerent?

4. Describe the last time you did something impulsive.

5. What steps would you take to document a case against a factory for polluting a nearby stream?

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Unit 1, Lesson 4

Vocabulary Power

Name  Date 

Lesson 5

Class 

Using Reference Skills

Using a Dictionary Entry

A word and the information given in a dictionary about the word is called an entry. Look at the sample entry below. Guidewords Pronunciation spelling

preadaptation/precipitator

precipitate (pri si’ p ta¯ t’) v. 1. to throw violently, hurl: She addressed the difficult moral situation into which genetic engineering has precipitated modern society. 2. to bring about: He precipitated a riot that led to the arrest of dozens of people. 3. to cause to separate from a solution: The scientist precipitated the salt from the fluid. 4. to condense from a vapor and fall as rain or snow: I hope the water in the clouds will soon precipitate as rain. e

Entry

Definition(s)

Sample phrase or sentence

EXERCISE

Use the sample entry to answer each question.

1. Which entry would you find on this page—preach, precious, or precisely? precious

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Which meaning of precipitate is being used in the following sentence? The fiery speech of the rebel leader precipitated the attack on the palace. the second

3. On which syllable does the primary accent fall in the word precipitate? the second

4. Use the first meaning of precipitate in a sentence of your own. Sample answer: Your foolish action has precipitated us into a dangerous situation.

5. Use the fourth meaning of precipitate in a sentence of your own. Sample answer: Not a drop of rain has precipitated on the farmers’ crops in the last month.

Vocabulary Power

Unit 1, Lesson 5

9

Name  Date 

Class 

Review: Unit 1 EXERCISE

Circle the letter of the word that best completes each sentence.

1. The committee voted to ______ the meeting until after the tornado alert had passed. a. adjourn b. perish c. taunt d. lurch 2. The need to rebuild some of the nation’s ______ slums will be an important part of the candidate’s election campaign. a. anonymous b. secluded c. urban d. belligerent 3. Kristin’s ______ for Washington, D.C., included the White House, the Capitol, and the Supreme Court Building. a. precedence b. itinerary c. humility d. alliance 4. It’s a shame this poem is ______ because I would love to know who wrote it. a. secluded b. anonymous c. urban d. belligerent 5. “The needs of my children take ______ over every other demand on my time,” explained the employee. a. humility b. document c. indifference d. precedence 6. No matter how much they ______ Brian about his project, they cannot make him angry. a. portray b. circumnavigate c. taunt d. compel

8. Ms. Dean had to ______ many of her successes in her application for the Master Teacher Award. a. document b. compel c. adjourn d. commence 9. Watch how the opossums ______ forward and then fall when they are pretending to be dead. a. perish b. lurch c. adjourn d. levitate 10. “I predict that the cells of the insect will ______ after its exposure to radiation,” said the scientist in the film. a. adjourn b. dramatize c. levitate d. mutate

10

Unit 1 Review

Vocabulary Power

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. Although the businessman has been very successful, his complete lack of ______ has made many people dislike him. a. indifference b. perception c. humility d. initiative

Name  Date 

Class 

Test: Unit 1 PART A

Circle the letter of the word that best completes each sentence.

1. After the Civil War, the ______ Southern states were welcomed back into the Union. a. alternative b. rebellious c. varied d. simultaneous 2. Do you know which actor will ______ President Lincoln in the new film biography? a. portray b. document c. commence d. compel 3. Although Woodbridge Middle School’s players were much taller than we were, our volleyball team was not ______ by them. a. secluded b. awed c. varied d. valid 4. The novelist had been asked to ______ her most recent best-seller, Hope in the Dawn, for a television movie. a. adjourn b. taunt c. dramatize d. lurch 5. I found the speeches so ______ that I couldn’t help yawning every two minutes! a. impulsive b. mutant c. wholesome d. monotonous

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. Ola expressed ______ when we asked her which ride we should go on first, so we decided without her. a. humility b. initiative c. indifference d. tranquillity 7. Because the two comments were ______, I couldn’t understand either one. a. simultaneous b. anonymous c. monotonous d. impulsive 8. After the young children giggled during the ceremony, their parents spoke to them about their inappropriate moment of ______. a. hysteria b. precedence c. humility d. levity 9. “There’s no way you can ______ me to reveal the location of the secret meeting place,” thundered the hero to his captors. a. perish b. compel c. taunt d. commence 10. The commission wrote that no ______ to the automobile was likely to be developed over the next twenty-five years. a. alternative b. itinerary c. alliance d. precedence

Vocabulary Power

Unit 1 Test

11

Name  Date 

Class 

continued

PART B

For each group of words, circle the letter of the vocabulary word that best fits.

1. slim, insufficient, sparse, ______ a. varied b. meager

c. secluded

d. impulsive

2. rise, float, lift, ______ a. levitate b. portray

c. compel

d. perish

3. good, official, approved, ______ a. simultaneous b. belligerent

c. valid

d. meager

4. calm, peacefulness, order, ______ a. doctrine b. alliance

c. hysteria

d. tranquillity

5. transformation, change, alteration, ______ a. initiative b. mutation c. precedence

d. itinerary

PART C

Circle the number of the word that is most nearly the opposite of the boldfaced word. b. anonymous

c. meager

d. impulsive

2. happiness a. woe

b. tranquillity

c. humility

d. levity

3. laziness a. initiative

b. alternative

c. indifference

d. levity

4. identical a. monotonous

b. varied

c. secluded

d. meager

5. finish a. mutate

b. taunt

c. commence

d. compel

12

Unit 1 Test

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. thoughtful a. rebellious

Vocabulary Power

Name  Date 

Lesson 6

Class 

Using Synonyms

Even the sturdiest trees sometimes lean. We are like trees—sometimes harsh winds blow and force us to lean on other people for support. This lesson provides us with words to use when exploring the ways we depend on each other. Word List

absurd

intimate

resolve

uncomprehendingly

arrogant

persistently

scowl

vivid

competently

postpone

EXERCISE A

Synonyms Sample synonyms and dictionary definitions are provided.

Each boldfaced vocabulary word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think of other words related to the synonym and write your ideas on the line provided. Then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. intimate : close Synonyms include confidential, the way you are with your best friend. Dictionary definition intimate: very personal or private 2. scowl : frown Synonyms include a wrinkling of the forehead, disapproving look. Dictionary definition scowl: facial expression that shows disapproval 3. arrogant : conceited Synonyms include haughty, stuck-up, having a big head.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Dictionary definition arrogant: proud, exaggerating self-worth 4. resolve : decide Synonyms include to determine, settle, rule, conclude, make up your mind. Dictionary definition resolve: to make a firm decision 5. uncomprehendingly : without understanding Synonyms include without knowing, being in the dark, cluelessly. Dictionary definition uncomprehendingly: with little understanding or comprehension 6. postpone : delay Synonyms include to put off, cancel temporarily, shelve, suspend. Dictionary definition postpone: to delay 7. persistently : stubbornly Synonyms include doggedly, pigheadedly. Dictionary definition persistently: continuing on, refusing to let go or stop 8. absurd : foolish Synonyms include senseless, silly, stupid, dumb. Dictionary definition absurd: ridiculous and unreasonable

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9. competently : adequately Synonyms include ably, properly, skillfully. Dictionary definition competently: with reasonable skill, capably 10. vivid : brilliant Synonyms include bright, sharp, clear. Dictionary definition vivid: bright and distinct, intense, also lifelike EXERCISE B

Multiple-Meaning Words

Many words in English have more than one meaning. Each meaning, however, is based on the meaning of the word root. The word resolve, for example, is from the Latin root resolvere meaning “to loosen,” “to dissolve,” or “to release.” A dictionary entry for resolve lists many different meanings, but all of them are related to the root meaning, “to loosen.” Use a dictionary to help you write the precise definition of resolve as it is used in each sentence below.

1. The instructor urged her students to resolve the mathematics problem into simple elements. to deduce by analysis

2. The negotiator tried unsuccessfully to resolve the dispute between management and labor. to deal with successfully; to clear up

3. Medical researchers are trying to resolve the chemical imbalance that triggers addictions. to cause a resolution of a pathological state Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. As the debate continued, her resolve to support the “pro” side began to weaken. determination

EXERCISE C

Word Association

For each group of words, write the vocabulary word that best fits.

1. proud, conceited, boastful

arrogant ________________

2. delay, cancel, suspend

postpone ________________

competently 3. skillfully, with ability, capably ________________

4. realistic, lifelike, bright

vivid ________________

5. determine, decide, settle

resolve ________________

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Unit 2, Lesson 6

Vocabulary Power

Name  Date 

Lesson 7

Class 

Recognizing Base Words

Words are often made up of different parts. The main meaning of a word is contained in its root or base word. Base words are roots that are complete words. Words that have the same root or base word are in the same word family. In this lesson, you’ll learn to identify some common base words and explore how adding prefixes and suffixes can change the meaning of words. Word List

acknowledge

hospitality

rehabilitate

significant

combatant

longevity

reserve

unseemly

defraud

neutralize

EXERCISE A

Word Association

Read the clues. Then, answer the question. Sample answers are provided.

1. To habilitate something is to prepare it, outfit it, or get it ready for a certain function. The word habilitate comes from a family of Latin words meaning “ability.” What is the purpose of an institution designed to rehabilitate criminals? teach them new skills so they will be fit for life outside of prison

2. What is the meaning of the word neutralize, which is created by adding the verb suffix -ize, meaning “to engage in a (specified) activity,” to the adjective neutral?

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

to counteract the activity, to make ineffective

3. Seemly behavior is conduct that is suitable, appropriate, in good taste, and pleasant. Our word comes from the Viking word for fitting. What are some synonyms for unseemly? inappropriate, rude, unpleasant, gross, unsuitable, in bad taste, improper

4. The noun suffix -ant usually means “a person who engages in this activity.” Name a famous combatant from U.S. history.

Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, George Patton, Douglas MacArthur

5. Synonyms of the word fraud include trickery, deception, and cheating. De- is a prefix that often creates a verb from a noun. What are some words that mean about the same as defraud? cheat, trick, take advantage of, swindle, scam

6. Our modern word hospital comes from the Latin word meaning “guest.” Hospital was used in earlier times to mean a place where travelers could sleep and eat. What things might you do to show hospitality to a guest in your home? give him or her the best room, prepare a special meal, let the guest choose the activities

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Unit 2, Lesson 7

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7. We use the common word long to describe both distance and length of time something exists. What comes to your mind when you add the noun suffix -ity to long to create longevity? a long life, my great-grandparents, redwood trees, Stonehenge, the Grand Canyon, American freedoms

8. The word reserve is based on the Latin word reservare, meaning “to keep.” What items, such as foods, would you reserve for an emergency such as a flood? canned food, dried fruit, and so on

9. Many English words originate in the Latin base word signum, meaning “sign.” Name some synonyms of the adjective form significant. important, meaningful

10. Unlike many modern English words, knowledge does not come from Latin. This base word comes from cnawan, the Old English word for know. An Old English verb form of this root is oncnawan. What are some synonyms for our word acknowledge, which comes from this Old English verb? to take note of, confess, admit, recognize, disclose EXERCISE B

Dictionary Definitions

Look up each boldfaced word in a dictionary and write the meaning. Using the information in a dictionary, underline the base word.

1. rehabilitate rehabilitate: to restore to former health or condition 2. neutralize neutralize: to make neutral, counterbalance something Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. unseemly imseemly: improper, conduct that goes against good taste, unsuitable 4. combatant combatant: someone who engages in combat, a soldier 5. defraud defraud: to swindle, take something by fraud, cheat someone 6. hospitality hospitality: generous treatment of guests 7. longevity longevity: long life or duration 8. reserve reserve: to set aside 9. significant significant: expressing meaning, meaningful, also fairly large and expressive 10. acknowledge acknowledge: to recognize, admit, confess EXERCISE C

Crossword Puzzle Word selection for students will vary. On a separate sheet of paper, create a crossword puzzle using at least eight of the vocabulary words. Then, exchange puzzles with a partner and complete the puzzle you receive. 16

Unit 2, Lesson 7

Vocabulary Power

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Lesson 8

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Prefixes That Mean “not” or “the opposite of”

Knowing the meaning of prefixes can help you discover the meanings of unknown words. A large number of prefixes mean “not” or “the opposite of.” Some of these prefixes are non-, ir-, ig-, un-, mal-, anti-, counter-, contra-, de-, dis-, in-, im-, op-, and il-. Be careful, though. Not all words that begin with these letter combinations have the meaning of the prefix. When in doubt, look up the word in the dictionary. Word List

contradiction

ignoble

irreversible

nondescript

deflate

improbable

malodorous

unabashed

dismantle

inhumane

EXERCISE A

Dictionary Definitions Sample answers and dictionary definitions are provided.

Underline the prefix in each of the boldfaced words below. Base your answers on the clues. Check the definition of each vocabulary word by looking it up in a dictionary and writing its meaning.

1. unabashed: If you abash someone, you destroy the person’s self-confidence or cause embarrassment. How might you describe someone who is unabashed? unabashed: not embarrassed, full of self-confidence and poise

Dictionary definition poised, unashamed

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. dismantle: A mantle was a kind of cloak worn during the seventeenth century, often as a symbol of authority or power. The Middle French word desmanteler meant “to remove a mantle.” Today we use the English word dismantle in a general sense to mean what? dismantle: to take apart, tear down

Dictionary definition take to pieces 3. ignoble: History shows us many examples of noble people. Name some historical figures you consider to be ignoble. ignoble: Aaron Burr, Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin, Benedict Arnold Dictionary definition base, low, common, not noble 4. contradiction: The Latin root dict means “to tell,” and our English word contradict means “to tell or speak against.” Adding the noun suffix -ion gives what meaning to the word contradiction? contradiction: act of speaking against something

Dictionary definition a statement that is illogical because it contains both truth and falsehood

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Unit 2, Lesson 8

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5. improbable: Most people agree that it is probable the sun will rise tomorrow morning. What is an event you consider to be improbable? improbable: winning the lottery, being elected president, playing for the Denver Broncos

Dictionary definition unlikely to be true or to occur 6. malodorous: Something that is odorous has a strong smell, either pleasant or unpleasant. The prefix mal- means “bad.” What are some things that you consider malodorous? malodorous: Limburger cheese, spoiled milk, rotten eggs

Dictionary definition ill-smelling 7. deflate: When you inflate a basketball or tire, you blow air into it. Describe what happens when you deflate a basketball or tire. In what way can a person be deflated? deflate: you let the air out; we could say a person is deflated when his or her self-confidence or reputation is destroyed

Dictionary definition to remove air or gas from, or to reduce in size or importance 8. nondescript: Describe and description are based on the Latin root describere (“to describe”). On the basis of the meanings of describe and description, what might the adjective nondescript mean? nondescript: unable to be described

Dictionary definition lacking in distinct or interesting qualities, dull, boring 9. irreversible: Many processes in life and science are reversible. Can you name some that are irreversible?

Dictionary definition not able to be reversed 10. inhumane: Do you have a Humane Society in your community? Many people believe that we should treat animals in a humane manner. To what inhumane practices might members of the Humane Society be reacting? inhumane: keeping pets in filthy conditions, starving or mistreating them, beating them

Dictionary definition without compassion or sympathy EXERCISE B

Words that begin with prefixes meaning “not” or “the opposite of” appear often in newspapers and magazines. Read an article. Then, on a separate sheet of paper, make a list of words containing the prefixes discussed in this lesson. After each word, use your vocabulary skills to make an educated guess about its meaning. Then, write the dictionary definition of the word. Lists will vary. 18

Unit 2, Lesson 8

Vocabulary Power

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

irreversible: death, birth, aging

Name  Date 

Lesson 9

Class 

Using Reading Skills

Learning from Context: Definitions

The context of a word is the environment, or the other words in the sentence. You can use the context to discover the meaning of an unknown word. Look for key words and even definitions elsewhere in the sentence to help you define the unknown word. EXERCISE

Read each sentence and use context clues to determine the meaning of the boldfaced word. Underline key words in the sentence that help you define the word. Then, write its probable meaning on the line. 1. I never dreamed that Tanya could be so vindictive; her demand for revenge took us by surprise. vengeful, desiring revenge

2. Tyler is adept at coordinating group projects; he can unify members around a common goal. proficient, skillful

3. I’m afraid that tired, old, familiar story about the farmer is very trite. not fresh or original, worn out from overuse

4. Grandmother was a bastion of strength and inspiration, a rock against all the storms of misfortune. fortress, stronghold, place or figure of great strength

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Hasidism is considered one of the many different branches or sects of Judaism. denomination within a religion

6. Their criticism did not denigrate us; they couldn’t discount our project. to criticize, speak negatively, consider to be of little importance

7. The National Guard was called in to quell the violent demonstration and restore order to the city. to quiet down, pacify, bring calm to a situation

8. The cheerleaders tried to galvanize the passive crowd by their lively actions and chants. to stimulate, excite

9. The prestigious statue, standing on its black marble pedestal, overlooked the park. base, foundation for a statue, column, or other structure

10. The editorial was a lampoon, harshly satirizing the candidate’s homely features and awkward manner. harsh satire

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Unit 2, Lesson 9

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Review: Unit 2 EXERCISE A

For each group of words, circle the letter of the vocabulary word that belongs.

1. clear, bright, sharp, ______ a. absurd b. vivid

c. improbable

d. trite

2. retain, keep, book, ______ a. reserve b. neutralize

c. resolve

d. quell

3. dull, boring, uninteresting, ______ a. absurd b. nondescript

c. unabashed

d. adept

4. cruel, mean, vicious, ______ a. arrogant b. unabashed

c. inhumane

d. unseemly

5. cheat, swindle, steal, ______ a. postpone b. reserve

c. dismantle

d. defraud

EXERCISE B

Circle the letter of the word that best completes the sentence.

1. The league was forced to ______ all games because of the heat wave. a. rehabilitate b. deflate c. galvanize d. postpone Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Our basketball coach hoped that our smaller, faster players would ______ the other team’s taller players. a. neutralize b. resolve c. lampoon d. defraud 3. Alan felt that he would first have to ______ the lawnmower to understand how it worked. a. acknowledge b. rehabilitate c. dismantle d. galvanize 4. Sean argued so ______ for going to the movie that I finally agreed to go. a. improbably b. unseemly c. persistently d. uncomprehendingly 5. The prison program tried to ______ criminals and prepare them for life outside of prison. a. denigrate b. rehabilitate c. postpone d. deflate

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Unit 2 Review

Vocabulary Power

Name  Date 

Class 

Test: Unit 2 PART A

Circle the letter of the word that best fits.

1. Which word would describe the way you’d feel if you found yourself in a ridiculous situation? a. absurd b. vivid c. nondescript d. vindictive 2. How would someone probably respond if you called him or her an unflattering name? a. resolve b. defraud you c. scowl at you d. reserve you 3. Up the down stairs, cool heat, and going under an overpass are examples of ______. a. hospitality b. combatants c. longevity d. contradiction 4. How would you be doing a task if you had no idea how to proceed? a. persistently c. competently b. uncomprehendingly d. improbably 5. A tortoise that lives for one hundred years is an example of ______. a. longevity b. hospitality c. a pedestal d. a contradiction 6. You would probably ______a meeting if not enough people could show up for it. a. rehabilitate b. dismantle c. postpone d. lampoon

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. Stealing, lying, and cheating are examples of what kind of conduct? a. trite b. arrogant c. irreversible d. ignoble 8. To what kind of friend would you tell a special secret? a. an unseemly one c. an inhumane one b. a vindictive one d. an intimate one 9. What would you expect when you check into an expensive resort hotel? a. a bastion b. hospitality c. longevity d. a scowl 10. You would most likely remember a ______ dream. a. nondescript b. malodorous c. vivid

d. trite

11. How would someone who is well trained in lifesaving techniques perform the job of lifeguard? a. uncomprehendingly c. competently b. persistently d. improbably 12. Which word is an antonym for, or the opposite of, “blow up”? a. quell b. deflate c. dismantle d. reserve

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Unit 2 Test

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13. Which of the following words describes the way a barnyard probably smells to most people? a. absurd b. nondescript c. unabashed d. malodorous 14. Having your appendix taken out is a procedure like this. a. irreversible b. unseemly c. inhumane

d. trite

15. Society will gain if it can ______ people sent to prison for committing crimes. a. dismantle b. intimate c. neutralize d. rehabilitate PART B

Circle the letter of the word that best fits with the others.

1. decide, determine, conclude, ______ a. postpone b. resolve

c. defraud

d. quell

2. soldier, sailor, marine, ______ a. sect b. contradiction

c. combatant

d. pedestal

3. improper, impolite, unsuitable, ______ a. improbable b. inhumane c. arrogant

d. unseemly

4. poised, unashamed, confident, ______ a. unabashed b. intimate c. ignoble

d. nondescript

5. conceited, proud, stuck-up, ______ a. absurd b. arrogant

d. significant

c. unabashed

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Unit 2 Test

Vocabulary Power

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Lesson 10 Using Synonyms Sometimes it’s easy to tell when you reach an important turning point. Other times you may not know you have arrived at a crossroad until later. Either way, the choices people make always have consequences. Taking one road always leads to a destination, even if you’re not sure where you’re going. In this lesson, you’ll learn words that relate to making decisions. Word List

abundant

lapse

serene

testimony

complex

loiter

summon

verbal

enclose

plight

EXERCISE A

Synonyms Sample synonyms and dictionary definitions are provided.

Each boldfaced word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think of other words related to the synonym and write your ideas on the line provided. Then, look up the boldfaced word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. lapse : decline Synonyms include to fall off in quality. Dictionary definition lapse: to fall from a previous level or standard, slip or sink gradually 2. serene : calm Synonyms include unruffled, cool. Dictionary definition serene: unaffected by disturbance Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. summon : call Synonyms include to request to appear, order to appear, demand. Dictionary definition summon: to send for, call forth 4. plight : predicament Synonyms include jam, fix, tough spot, between a rock and a hard place. Dictionary definition plight: bad situation 5. complex : complicated Synonyms include tangled, involved. Dictionary definition complex: involved or complicated in structure or idea 6. abundant : plentiful Synonyms include ample, in good supply, rich. Dictionary definition abundant: existing in great quantity, supply, or number 7. enclose : surround Synonyms include to fence, cage, catch. Dictionary definition enclose: coop up, confine, close in on all sides 8. verbal : associated with words Synonyms include spoken, oral. Dictionary definition verbal: related to words Vocabulary Power

Unit 3, Lesson 10

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9. testimony : statement Synonyms include evidence, public acknowledgment. Dictionary definition testimony: declaration 10. loiter : stand around Synonyms include to hang around, do nothing, delay. Dictionary definition loiter: to linger or wait aimlessly, dawdle EXERCISE B

Word Association

Cross out the word that does not belong with the others.

1. plight, problem, testimony, jam 2. knotty, complex, complicated, abundant 3. summon, trap, coop, enclose 4. written, verbal, serene, spoken 5. linger, lapse, delay, loiter EXERCISE C

Context Clues Sample answers are provided.

Answer each question, based on your knowledge of the boldfaced word.

1. In what plight might travelers in the desert find themselves? lacking water or food, getting lost, suffering heat stroke

2. What is one technique you use to stay serene before a stressful event?

3. Why might store owners not like people to loiter around their entrances? A crowd of people might frighten away customers or make it hard for them to enter the store.

4. What is the most complex meal you have ever prepared? What made it so complex? Example: chop suey; all the chopping of different ingredients

5. Describe a time when you had a lapse of concentration. What happened as a result? Riding my bike, I was daydreaming and almost ran over a squirrel. Dodging it made me fall off the bike.

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Unit 3, Lesson 10

Vocabulary Power

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breathe deeply, imagine a peaceful place, listen to calm music

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Lesson 11 Prefixes That Tell Where Knowing the meaning of prefixes can help you discover the meanings of unknown words. A number of prefixes tell “where” and provide a meaning that relates to location. Some of these prefixes are ab-, ad-, de-, ex-, in-, inter-, intra-, per-, sub-, and trans-. In this lesson, you’ll learn words that use five of these “where” prefixes. Be careful, though. Not all words that begin with these letter combinations have the meaning of the prefix. When in doubt, look up the word in a dictionary. Word List

abdicate

intervention

perforate

transfix

abduction

intramural

perpetual

transmission

intermediate

intravenous

EXERCISE A

Word Association Student answers will vary; dictionary definitions are provided.

Underline the prefix in each of the boldfaced words. Answer the question. Then, check the definition of the boldfaced word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. transmission: The prefix trans- is a “where” prefix that means “across” or “through.” The Latin root miss means “send.” What might be the meaning of these two word elements when combined with the noun suffix -ion? Why is this word also used to name an important part of an automobile? transmission: something that is sent across; because the transmission sends power from the engine to the wheels

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Dictionary definition transmission: the process of sending something from one place to another, such as radio waves 2. transfix: The root fix comes from the Latin word meaning to “fasten” or “pierce.” If you experience something that has the power to transfix you, what words could you use to describe the experience? transfix: to amaze, astound, mind-boggle, paralyze

Dictionary definition transfix: to be motionless from awe or fear, pierce through with a sharp instrument 3. abdicate: Another prefix that relates to location is ab-, which means “from.” The root dic, the same one used in such words as dictate, diction, and predict, means “tell.” What would a king be doing if he were to abdicate his throne? abdicate: to give up the throne Dictionary definition abdicate: to give up a throne or other powerful position, relinquish power 4. abduction: Another common Latin root, duc, means “to lead” and is used in words like conduct and conductor. If police are investigating the abduction of a child, what is another word for this crime? abduction: kidnapping

Dictionary definition abduction: the act of carrying someone away by force Vocabulary Power

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5. perpetual: The “where” prefix per- has the meaning of “through” or “throughout.” The prefix can be combined with a root that means “to go to.” What might be the meaning of the adjective perpetual formed by this root and prefix?

perpetual: continuing through, lasting

Dictionary definition perpetual: continuing forever, for all time, continual 6. perforate: The Latin root forare means “to bore” or “to drill.” If a machine is designed to perforate something, what is it probably doing? perforate: to bore through something Dictionary definition perforate: to make holes, pass through as if making holes 7. intermediate: The Latin prefix inter- means “between,” while the root med, medi means “middle.” If something is located in an intermediate position, where would you find it? intermediate: in the middle or center position, between other items

Dictionary definition intermediate: being at the middle stage, place, or degree 8. intervention: The root ven/veni comes from the Latin word for “come.” What are some situations in which a police officer might take part in an intervention? intervention: family dispute, traffic accident, robbery, some kind of sting operation

Dictionary definition intervention: coming between two opposing parties, coming between so as to prevent or modify 9. intramural: A similar prefix, intra-, means “within,” “during,” or “inside of.” Mur is a Latin root Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

meaning “wall.” When you play an intramural sport, whom are you playing against? How does this kind of activity differ from interscholastic sports? intramural: players or teams from your own school (within the walls); interscholastic sports are played against teams from other schools

Dictionary definition intramural: occurring within a community, organization, or institution 10. intravenous: The English word vein comes from the Latin word vena. Venous is the adjective form. If you receive an intravenous injection rather than a shot in a muscle or just under your skin, where does the needle go? intravenous: into a vein Dictionary definition intravenous: occurring within or entering by way of a vein EXERCISE B

Finding “Where” Prefixes Student answers will vary.

Words that begin with prefixes that tell “where” appear often in newspapers and magazines. Read a newspaper or magazine article. Then, on a separate sheet of paper, make a list of the words you find containing the prefixes discussed in this lesson. After each word, use your vocabulary skills to make an educated guess about its meaning. Then, use a dictionary to write its definition. 26

Unit 3, Lesson 11

Vocabulary Power

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Lesson 12 Greek Word Roots In this lesson, you’ll learn ten useful English words based on Greek roots. Knowing the meanings of Greek roots can help you make an educated guess about the meaning of a new word. Sometimes, however, the exact meaning of the new word isn’t clear from the root. It’s always safer to look up new words in a dictionary. Word List

apathetic

hydrophobia

phobia

phonograph

autonomous

pathos

phonetics

sophisticated

autopsy

philosophical

EXERCISE A

Word Association Student answers will vary; dictionary definitions are provided.

Read the clues and answer the question. Then, look up the boldfaced word’s definition in a dictionary and write the definition on the second line.

1. Phon, phono is a common Greek root that means “sound,” “speech,” or “voice.” Adding a suffix to this root creates the word phonetics. What subject do you think is studied in the science of phonetics? speech sounds

Dictionary definition phonetics: the study of speech sounds in a language 2. Sometimes words are formed by joining two roots and their meanings, rather than by adding a prefix or suffix to a root. What is the literal meaning of phonograph, a word created by joining the

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Greek root graph “write” to phono? What is another name for this machine? “sound writing,” record player Dictionary definition phonograph: machine for reproducing sounds by means of a needle 3. Since the Greek root aut/auto means “self” or “same” and nomos means “law,” what is an autonomous country? independent, self-governing, making its own laws, free of outside control Dictionary definition autonomous: having the power of self-government 4. Opt, a root that comes from the Greek word for “sight,” is used in our words optical and optician. The word autopsy is formed by adding the prefix auto- to the root opt. Why might a doctor perform an autopsy on a dead body? to see with his or her own eyes the cause of death or to gain other medical information

Dictionary definition autopsy: medical examination of a body after death 5. Phobia is a Greek root that means “fear.” We use the same word in English to describe a certain kind of feeling about a specific object or idea. How would you describe this feeling? a fear of something

Dictionary definition phobia: an exaggerated and sometimes unreasonable fear of something Vocabulary Power

Unit 3, Lesson 12

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6. You probably know the Greek root hydr/hydro from such words as hydraulic, hydrogen, hydroelectric, and hydrant. From what special fear does someone with hydrophobia suffer? fear of water

Dictionary definition hydrophobia: morbid dread of water 7. “Suffering” or “feeling” is the meaning of the Greek root path/patho. If a work of art like a painting, poem, or play creates pathos in the people who experience it, what might they be feeling? feelings of sympathy or sadness for the events or people portrayed

Dictionary definition pathos: emotion of sympathetic pity 8. The meaning of the root and the part of speech may be changed by the addition of different prefixes and suffixes. The prefix a- is a negative prefix, while the suffix -ic forms an adjective. How might you describe someone who is apathetic? he or she has no feelings or emotion Dictionary definition apathetic: lacking in interest, emotion, or sympathy 9. The Greek root soph means “wise.” In what way is someone who is sophisticated also wise? wise in the ways of the world, knowledgeable about many things, experienced

Dictionary definition sophisticated: complex, aware, experienced 10. Phil/philo is a Greek root meaning “loving” or “having a special fondness or interest in.” When the roots philo and soph are combined, the new word philosophical is formed. What does a philosophical person love? wisdom, knowledge

EXERCISE B

Sentence Completion

Write the word that best completes the sentence. apathetic 1. It’s very hard to get students to serve on committees because so many people are ________________

about school issues. phonograph 2. Darcie’s mom let us play some of the old ________________ records she has kept from the 1960s. philosophical 3. All of my conversations with Scott are very ________________ — we’re both voracious readers. phobia 4. A special tutor helped Jason overcome his ________________ of mathematics and attain a B+ on the

exam. autonomous 5. The representative from the territory argued that his people deserved to be a(n) ________________ nation.

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Unit 3, Lesson 12

Vocabulary Power

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Dictionary definition philosophy: relating to the pursuit of wisdom, calm when faced with trouble

Name  Date 

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Lesson 13 Suffixes That Form Nouns When a suffix is added to a word or root, the word’s use in the sentence is often changed. Some common suffixes that change a word or root into a noun are -ant or -ent, -ate, -oid, -ory, -tude, -ite, and -an or -ian. Some noun suffixes refer to the person who performs an activity, while others mean the activity itself. For example, the verb act (“to perform”) may be changed to actor (“a person who performs’’) or action (“performance”). In this lesson, you’ll explore how noun suffixes are used to create different words. Word List

adherent

dormitory

lavatory

occupant

authoritarian

gratitude

mandate

urbanite

certitude

humanoid

EXERCISE

Word Association

Read the clues and answer the question. Then, look up the boldfaced word’s definition in a dictionary and write the definition on the second line. Answers will vary; sample answers follow.

1. As a noun suffix, -ate means “function,” “office,” or “rank.” Our word mandate comes from the Latin word manus, meaning “hand,” and mandare, meaning “to entrust.” If a court delivers a mandate, what is it doing? The court gives an official order

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Dictionary definition mandate: formal command or order, also authorization from voters 2. To adhere to something means “to follow,” “to give support to,” or “to believe in.” The noun suffix -ent, like the more common suffix -er, means “one who.” Name a religion, political party, or other belief of which you are an adherent. Presbyterianism, Hinduism, Reform Party Dictionary definition adherent: a believer or follower of a particular idea or organization 3. The noun suffix -ant is a variation of -ent. To occupy something is to live in it or be located in it. Who is the occupant of the desk to your right? Of the home next to yours? Brenda, Thomas, Ms. Applegate, the Changs

Dictionary definition occupant: person who occupies a place 4. The noun suffix -ory comes from Latin and means “place for.” This suffix is used with many different words, some of which are Latin roots. The Latin root dorm means “to sleep.” What is the main purpose of a dormitory? sleeping Dictionary definition dormitory: place for sleeping Vocabulary Power

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5. The Latin root lav means “to wash.” What activity occurs in a lavatory? washing (bathroom)

Dictionary definition lavatory: place for washing 6. Another noun suffix you may be familiar with is -oid, which means “resembling” or “similar to.” If aliens from outer space are described as humanoid, what features might the aliens have? two eyes, two ears, two legs, and one head

Dictionary definition humanoid: resembling a human 7. Another noun suffix is -tude, which means “the state of being” or “the condition of.” Many English words are based on the Latin root grat, meaning “thankful.” How would you define the noun gratitude? the state of being thankful, thankfulness

Dictionary definition gratitude: the state of being appreciative 8. Words like certain, certify, and certainly are based on the Latin root cernere meaning “to decide” or “to judge.” Another word that uses this root is certitude. What might be its meaning? state of being sure

Dictionary definition certitude: faith in something, state of being free from doubts 9. A common noun suffix is -an or -ian. It means “being one of,” “related to,” or “a member of.” The a leader who is an authoritarian? demanding, in total control, uses his or her power, expects people to follow orders

Dictionary definition authoritarian: one who favors the strong use of power and the total submission to it 10. One more common noun suffix is -ite. It means “someone who is a follower of” or “a resident of.” You can find this suffix attached to many different words. One word is urbanite, based on the Latin root urb, meaning “city.” In your opinion, what are some advantages and disadvantages of being an urbanite? advantages: excitement, nearness to attractions, diversity of people; disadvantages: crime, congestion, pollution

Dictionary definition urbanite: a person who lives in a city

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Unit 3, Lesson 13

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root author comes from the Latin word meaning “power.” What words might you use to describe

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Using Reference Skills

Using a Thesaurus: Synonyms

A thesaurus (from the ancient Greek word for treasure) is a useful reference work that lists synonyms (and often antonyms) for thousands of words. The synonyms vary slightly in meaning, and the listing is designed to help you choose just the right word. Some thesauruses list the words in an index. A reference number guides you to a listing in the main part of the thesaurus. This is the way the most famous thesaurus, originally compiled by Peter Roget (row-ZHAY) in the mid-nineteenth century, is organized. Other thesauruses arrange the words in alphabetical order. The entry word is followed by a list of synonyms and, sometimes, antonyms (opposites). In this lesson, you’ll get practice in using a thesaurus to find synonyms. EXERCISE Student answers may vary.

Below you’ll find some entries from a thesaurus. Study the entries. Then, answer the questions. assail v. ambush, assault, attack, batter, beat, invade, raid, storm, strike, wallop, waylay demure adj. bashful, gentle, innocent, modest, quiet, reserved, shy, timid impediment n. affliction, bar, barrier, blockage, difficulty, flaw, obstacle, obstruction, snag lucid adj. clear, clear-cut, coherent, direct, easy, intelligible, logical, simple, understandable

1. Which synonyms for demure seem to you to express a positive feeling? gentle, innocent, modest

A negative feeling? bashful, shy, timid

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Explain your answers. The first group is usually applied to people in an admiring spirit, while the second group implies character flaws or weaknesses.

2. Which synonym for assail seems to you to be the strongest in its feeling? assault, batter

Which seems the mildest? attack, beat 3. Suppose you are having trouble deciding whether to use “coherent” or “intelligible” as a synonym for lucid. How would you find out exactly how the two words differ in meaning? Look them up in a dictionary.

4. Impediment appears here as a noun. The verb form of this word is impede. Based on this thesaurus entry, what might be some synonyms for the verb impede? afflict, bar, block, obstruct, snag

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Unit 3, Lesson 14

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Review: Unit 3 EXERCISE A

Circle the word that does not belong with the others.

1. follower, believer, supporter, authoritarian 2. plentiful, perpetual, in good supply, ample 3. adherent, free-standing, self-governing, independent 4. punch, drill, bore, enclose 5. problem, difficulty, mandate, jam EXERCISE B

Circle the word in parentheses that best completes the sentence.

1. After losing the election, Margo lost interest in politics and became (abundant, serene, apathetic). 2. The figure skater glided in a (serene, perpetual, verbal) way across the ice. 3. Throwing pies in people’s faces is not the most (autonomous, intermediate, sophisticated) kind of comedy, but it can be funny anyway. 4. Middle or (intermediate, complex, perpetual) school comes between elementary and high school.

6. The king decided to (summon, transfix, perforate) all of the nobles in the kingdom to discuss the crisis. 7. Some coaches are relaxed and easy with their team members, while others can be quite (intramural, intermediate, authoritarian), putting in place many rules and expecting obedience. 8. The inventor claimed to have invented a(n) (perpetual, intravenous, abundant) motion machine, one that would run forever without needing a source of energy. 9. The farmer built a new corral to (perforate, enclose, summon) his sheep and goats. 10. The governor followed the (abduction, intervention, mandate) of voters and signed the bill into law.

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5. The old woman expressed (certitude, gratitude, hydrophobia) to the firefighters who had rescued her.

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Test: Unit 3 PART A

Circle the letter of the word that best completes the sentence.

1. Troy’s score on the ______ test section was higher than that on the mathematics section. a. verbal b. intramural c. autonomous d. apathetic 2. The veterinarian gave the lamb an ______ injection of vitamins. a. intervention b. intermediate c. intravenous d. intramural 3. The advertisement was addressed to “______,” so I just tossed it in the wastebasket. a. Adherent b. Abundant c. Humanoid d. Occupant 4. Mozart’s opera ______ from the Seraglio is about an attempted kidnapping that takes place in a Turkish sultan’s palace. a. Abduction b. Intervention c. Transmission d. Plight 5. Greg lost the chess game because he had a short ______ of concentration and made a single bad move. a. plight b. lapse c. mandate d. certitude

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6. The mountain sunset was so beautiful that it had the power to ______ everyone in our hiking group. a. transfix b. enclose c. perforate d. abdicate 7. A knowledge of ______ can be a great help when you try to learn a foreign language. a. hydrophobia b. transmission c. certitude d. phonetics 8. I wish people wouldn’t ______ on the corner of our block. a. abdicate b. loiter c. summon

d. enclose

9. The ______ of the trapped miners captured the sympathy of the entire country. a. mandate b. phobia c. lapse d. plight 10. Terence’s sprained ankle was so severe that the quick ______ of a doctor was required. a. transmission b. pathos c. intervention d. gratitude

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Unit 3 Test

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PART B

Circle the letter of the word that is most nearly an antonym, or the opposite, of the boldfaced word.

1. excitable a. perpetual

b. philosophical

c. autonomous

d. intravenous

2. doubt a. pathos

b. gratitude

c. intervention

d. certitude

3. simple a. complex

b. intermediate

c. abundant

d. verbal

4. keep a. transfix

b. loiter

c. enclose

d. discard

5. affectionate a. apathetic

b. perpetual

c. autonomous

d. abundant

PART C

Circle the letter of the word that best matches each clue.

1. People buy certain products when a celebrity gives one of these. a. a phonograph b. a testimony c. a mandate d. certitude 2. This is something that can happen to people only after they are dead. a. autopsy b. intervention c. abduction d. hydrophobia Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Without this, you would not be able to drive a car anywhere. a. an adherent b. a phobia c. a testimony d. a transmission 4. A New Yorker is one, and so is a Chicagoan. a. urbanite b. authoritarian c. adherent

d. occupant

5. In this, you’d find many beds. a. testimony b. lavatory

d. mandate

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c. dormitory

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Lesson 15 Using Synonyms The desire to make mischief is widespread, especially among children. What do you think makes people eager to play tricks on others? The words in the list below relate to such mischief. Word List

comply

invigorating

pact

rogue

haggle

invincible

reckless

vibrant

imply

obstruction

EXERCISE A

Synonyms Sample synonyms and dictionary definitions are provided.

Each boldfaced word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think of other words related to the synonym and write them on the line provided. Then, look up the boldfaced word in a dictionary and write its definition.

1. pact : agreement Synonyms include accord, concord. Dictionary definition pact: compact, treaty 2. vibrant : spirited Synonyms include energetic. Dictionary definition vibrant: responsive; full of vigor 3. haggle : bargain Synonyms include to bicker.

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Dictionary definition haggle: to wrangle, dispute 4. comply : obey Synonyms include to act in agreement with another’s command or wish. Dictionary definition comply: to conform or adapt 5. invincible : unconquerable Synonyms include unable to be defeated or overcome, unconquerable. Dictionary definition invincible: indomitable, incapable of being subdued 6. obstruction : obstacle Synonyms include something that makes movement or progress difficult. Dictionary definition obstruction: hindrance, something that clogs or blocks 7. rogue : rascal Synonyms include scoundrel, scamp. Dictionary definition rogue: worthless or mischievous person 8. imply : suggest Synonyms include to suggest or hint at. Dictionary definition imply: to express indirectly

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9. reckless : heedless

Synonyms include careless, irresponsible.

Dictionary definition reckless: rash, exposing oneself to danger more than required by good sense 10. invigorating : energizing Synonyms include animating. Dictionary definition invigorating: giving life and energy, stimulating EXERCISE B

Context Clues

Write the vocabulary word that could describe each example. pact 1. an agreement between two countries to limit nuclear weapons ________________ rogue 2. a person begs, causes mischief, and then skips town ________________ reckless 3. someone running out into a busy intersection without looking ________________ vibrant 4. city streets full of people walking, talking, and having a good time ________________ comply 5. to follow the instructions of a boss at work ________________ invigorating 6. a brisk walk on a frosty winter morning ________________ obstruction 7. a plastic toy stuck in a drainpipe and slowing the flow of water ________________ imply 8. using your tone of voice to suggest that something is wrong ________________ haggle 9. to negotiate the price of an item at a yard sale ________________ invincible 10. how a chess player feels who has won the last hundred games he has played ________________ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

EXERCISE C

Word Association

Circle the word that does not belong with the others.

1. alive, invigorating, unresponsive, vibrant 2. embezzle, negotiate, barter, haggle 3. suggest, deduce, mean, imply 4. mighty, invincible, unconquerable, vulnerable 5. obstruction, impediment, passage, barrier EXERCISE D

Description

Using one or more of the vocabulary words, describe mischief or a trick you’ve experienced, observed, or read about. Students should use each word appropriately and spell each correctly.

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Lesson 16 Using Definitions The word fantastic means “out of this world” and comes from the Greek word phantastikos, meaning “producing mental images.” Fantastic (or fantasy) stories might take place at any time. What sets fantasy stories apart from other kinds of stories are imaginary settings or supernatural events. The words in this list relate to the fantastic. Word List

dumbfounded

gauge

novel

revive

ford

illuminate

remote

unsound

frugal

jut

EXERCISE A

Definition Clues Sample dictionary definitions are provided.

Each example below contains a clue about the meaning of the boldfaced word. Use the clue to guess the word’s likely meaning. Then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. novel : making a dress out of newspaper Dictionary definition novel: strikingly new or unusual 2. remote : a cabin on a lonely mountain in Alaska Dictionary definition remote: far removed in space or time 3. ford : ride a horse across a stream at a shallow place

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Dictionary definition ford: to cross a stream where it is shallow by wading, riding, or driving 4. illuminate : explain the style of a painting Dictionary definition illuminate: to make understandable, clarify 5. gauge : measure yesterday’s rainfall at 1.5 inches Dictionary definition gauge: to measure precisely, estimate 6. unsound : a floor that is rotten and has many holes Dictionary definition unsound: not dependably strong or solid 7. jut : what a protruding cliff on a mountain face might do Dictionary definition jut: to stick out 8. dumbfounded : response to unbelievable news Dictionary definition dumbfounded: astonished, perplexed

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9. frugal : person who spends money only on necessary items Dictionary definition frugal: careful in spending money or using resources 10. revive : bring back a midnight movie series Dictionary definition revive: to bring back to life or activity EXERCISE B

Multiple-Meaning Words Sample dictionary definitions are provided. Many words in English have more than one meaning. Each meaning, however, is based on the meaning of the word root. The word remote, for example, is from the Latin remotus, past participle of removere, meaning “to remove.” A dictionary entry for remote lists many different meanings, all of which are related to the root meaning, “to remove.” Use a dictionary to help you write the precise definition of remote as it is used in each sentence below. 1. King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table are legendary figures from the remote past. Dictionary definition far removed in space, time, or relation 2. We encountered the recluse in a remote cabin in the hills. Dictionary definition out-of-the-way, secluded 3. Remote sensing equipment enables police in helicopters to spot fugitives on the run. Dictionary definition acting, acted on, or controlled indirectly or from a distance 4. An acorn is cupped in a hardened structure remote from the nut.

5. Jason realized that he had only a remote possibility of winning the track meet. Dictionary definition small in degree, slight 6. The evening-news producers inserted a remote from the hurricane area. Dictionary definition a radio or television program or a portion of a program originating outside the studio 7. We found the long-lost television remote control under the sofa cushions. Dictionary definition a device or mechanism for controlling something from a distance

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Unit 4, Lesson 16

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Dictionary definition separated by an interval or space greater than usual

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Lesson 17 Prefixes That Tell When A prefix is a word part attached at the beginning of a word or root. The prefix re-, for example, means “again” or “back”; pre- means “before” or “in front of.” Adding a prefix to a word or root modifies its meaning. For instance, the word re-create means “create again,” and the word pretreat means “treat before.” Recognizing these two prefixes that tell when can often help you figure out a word’s meaning. Word List

precaution

premeditated

recur

regenerate

precondition

reconstruct

refurbish

reintegrate

prefix

recount

EXERCISE A

Prefixes Sample dictionary definitions are provided.

Use the meaning of the prefix and the information given about the base word or root to supply a possible meaning for each word. Then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its definition.

1. The root count means “relate.” Recount might mean

Dictionary definition recount: to narrate, describe 2. A condition is a state of being. Precondition might mean

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Dictionary definition precondition: state that must exist before something can occur or be considered 3. Construct means “build.” Reconstruct might mean

Dictionary definition reconstruct: to build again 4. Meditate means “ponder” or “plan.” Premeditated might mean

Dictionary definition premeditated: plotted or planned in advance 5. Fix means “stabilize” or “appoint.” Prefix might mean

Dictionary definition prefix: to appoint beforehand, to add to beginning of a word

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6. Furbish means “clean” or “polish.” Refurbish might mean

Dictionary definition refurbish: to make clean, fresh, or useful again 7. Integrate means “unite.” Reintegrate might mean Dictionary definition reintegrate: to unite again into an entity, to restore to unity 8. Caution comes from the Latin infinitive cavere, meaning “to be on guard.” Precaution might mean

Dictionary definition precaution: action taken in advance to protect against danger or failure 9. Generate means “produce.” Regenerate might mean

Dictionary definition regenerate: to create again; to produce anew 10. The root cur comes from the Latin word for “run.” Recur might mean

Dictionary definition recur: to happen again EXERCISE B

Usage

precondition 1. Warm, sunny weather is a ________________ for hanging clothes outdoors to dry. regenerate 2. The starfish had to ________________ a leg after the eel grabbed it. premeditated 3. The punishment for a ________________ crime is usually harsher than for an unplanned crime. recur 4. This problem will ________________ if we don’t come up with a solution now. refurbish 5. Jason helped Mr. Corelli ________________ his old car; now it’s as good as new. recount 6. Max asked Ashley to ________________ what happened in the third act of the play. precaution 7. Yolanda wears a helmet, knee pads, and elbow pads as a ________________ when she

goes rollerblading. reintegrate 8. After six months apart, Anita and Stan had to ________________ their lives. prefix 9. The editor had to ________________ news assignments before the holiday. reconstruct 10. Volunteers will help ________________ the Smiths’ barn, which was destroyed by a fire. 40

Unit 4, Lesson 17

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Complete each sentence with the correct vocabulary word.

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Lesson 18 Using Reading Skills Learning from Context: Definitions

Have you ever wondered where certain words come from? Most dictionary entries include a brief note about the word’s origin, or beginning. The note usually appears in square brackets, often toward the beginning of the entry. Several examples follow: bovine (bo–´vi-n) adj. [from Latin bov-, bos ox, cow] 1. of, relating to, or resembling bovines and especially the ox or cow 2. having qualities (as placidity or dullness) characteristic of oxen or cows czar (zär) n. [from Russian tsar’, from Latin Caesar] 1. emperor, specifically the ruler of Russia until the 1917 revolution 2. one having great power or authority mecca (mek´ ) n. often cap. [Mecca, Saudi Arabia, a destination of pilgrims in the Islamic world] a center of activity sought as a goal by people sharing a common interest mesmerize (mez´ m ri-z´, mes´-) v. [from Franz Mesmer, 1734–1815, an Austrian doctor who treated disease using a form of hypnotism] 1. to subject to mesmerism, also to hypnotize 2. spellbind odyssey (od´ se–) n. [from the Odyssey, the epic poem attributed to Homer recounting the long wanderings of Odysseus] 1. a long wandering or voyage usually marked by many changes of fortune 2. an intellectual or spiritual wandering or quest

e

e

e

EXERCISE

Use the sample entries above to answer each question about word origins.

1. Which word comes from the name of a Greek hero? What happened to this hero?

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odyssey; from Odysseus who wandered for a long time after the Trojan War

2. What is the Russian spelling of czar? From what older word and language does the Russian word come? tsar; from the Latin Caesar

3. What is the origin of the word mesmerize? How does the meaning of this word relate to the word origin? It comes from the name of an Austrian doctor, Franz Mesmer, who treated disease using a form of hypnotism. Mesmerize means to hold spellbound, as if hypnotized.

4. Which word comes from the name of a place? Describe this place. mecca; the destination of Islamic pilgrims

5. How is a bovine person like a cow? He or she is slow-moving and not mentally sharp.

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Unit 4, Lesson 18

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Review: Unit 4 EXERCISE

Circle the word that best completes each sentence.

1. The landlord is planning to (relocate, recount, refurbish) several run-down apartment buildings on K Street. 2. Buyers at a flea market often try to (recount, haggle, gauge) with the sellers to get the best price. 3. The two countries had a(n) (obstruction, precondition, pact) to aid each other if an enemy invaded. 4. Fran decided on a(n) (novel, remote, invincible) costume for the party—she plans to come as a gas pump. 5. If you ask for a refund at that store, the owners will always (comply, imply, ford) with your request. 6. This chart will help to (illuminate, revive, reconstruct) the complex plan. 7. This chairperson had to (jut, reintegrate, imply) the members after the party lost the election. 8. The scientists’ task is to (gauge, imply, revive) the amount of oxygen in the icy water near the South Pole. 9. Fran decided to take her dog on a(n) (rogue, frugal, invigorating) walk in the snow. 10. Building blocks are great—I can (reintegrate, reconstruct, ford) any building I have seen.

(invincible, premeditated, remote). 12. The other teams thought the Bulls were (invincible, novel, reckless) after three undefeated seasons. 13. Some animals can actually (recount, reintegrate, regenerate) their tails or digits if they lose them! 14. Please (refurbish, recount, revive) for us what you did on your vacation. 15. Darla always has money in her savings account because of her (frugal, novel, remote) shopping habits.

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11. The lawyer argued that since the suspect had written his plan for the crime in a letter, the act was

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Test: Unit 4 PART A

Circle the answer that best completes each sentence.

1. An example of a precaution is ______. a. a car blocking a roadway b. carrying extra batteries for a flashlight

c. an accident caused by carelessness d. a toy that has many pieces

2. A rogue member of an organization is a ______. a. follower b. mischief-maker c. pleasant person d. lazy person 3. If you recount something, you ______. a. perform a rescue b. count backward c. make a list

d. give a description

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4. A precondition for moving on to the next grade level in school is ______. a. passing the previous grade c. being admired by your teachers b. taking part in sports d. having a large student body at your school 5. An example of a remote time in the past is ______. a. yesterday b. last year c. the year 1950

d. the year 950

6. If you are dumbfounded, you are ______. a. unintelligent b. astonished c. quiet

d. overjoyed

7. To revive a long-abandoned theater, people might ______. a. begin to put on free plays there c. do research to find out how old it was b. turn it into an apartment building d. change the location of the entrances 8. An obstruction is ______. a. a formal agreement b. something that blocks movement or progress

c. an argument against something d. a building under construction

9. An example of a pact is a(n) ______. a. decision of a committee to do a certain project c. trade agreement between two countries b. agreement with a friend to go to a certain movie d. decision of two people to adopt a child 10. A vibrant person would be ______. a. nervous b. energetic

Vocabulary Power

c. bored

d. tired

Unit 4 Test

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PART B

Write the letter of the word that has the same meaning as the expression.

1. suggest or hint a. jut

b. imply

c. haggle

d. prefix d. obstruction

3. not dependably strong or solid a. unsound b. invincible

c. vibrant

d. invigorating

4. build again a. refurbish

c. revive

d. reconstruct

5. giving life and energy to a. gauging b. invigorating

c. reintegrating

d. fording

6. restore to original strength a. illuminate b. recur

c. regenerate

d. comply

7. stick out a. imply

b. ford

c. prefix

d. jut

8. bring back to life a. revive

b. recur

c. illuminate

d. imply

c. obstruction

d. precondition

c. haggle

d. imply

11. impossible to defeat a. novel b. frugal

c. premeditated

d. invincible

12. clarify a. illuminate

c. revive

d. reintegrate

13. negotiate over a price a. gauge b. haggle

c. jut

d. revive

14. strikingly unusual a. vibrant

c. remote

d. novel

b. imply

9. something that impedes a. precaution b. pact 10. happen again a. gauge

b. recur

b. recount

b. unsound

15. go along with another’s wish or command a. gauge b. refurbish c. imply 44

Unit 4 Test

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2. measurement of the thickness of sheet metal a. recurrence b. reconstruction c. gauge

d. comply Vocabulary Power

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Lesson 19 Using Context Clues Independence and self-reliance go hand in hand. You need to be able to stand on your own and trust your own abilities and judgment. You’ve probably experienced this. For example, as children grow into teenagers and take on more responsibilities, adults tend to give them more freedom. The words in this list relate to the idea of freedom. Word List

chronicle

disheveled

indistinct

minimal

disclose

divert

intrigue

sibling

discord

independent

EXERCISE A

Clues Matching

Each example below contains a clue about the meaning of the boldfaced word. Use the clue to guess the word’s likely meaning. Write your guess above the word. Then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its meaning. Sample dictionary definitions follow.

1. The discord between Democrats and Republicans is evident in their bitter debates. Dictionary definition discord: lack of agreement or harmony 2. Grandfather clocks intrigue me; I’d like to learn more about how they are made. Dictionary definition intrigue: to arouse the curiosity or interest of

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. The reporter would not disclose the source of her information. Dictionary definition disclose: to reveal, uncover 4. Independent countries are sometimes forced to protect their freedom. Dictionary definition independent: self-governing, main 5. His disheveled appearance—uncombed hair and unshaved face—showed that he had just awakened. Dictionary definition disheveled: unkempt, messy 6. My sister is my only sibling; I have no other sisters and no brothers. Dictionary definition sibling: a brother or a sister 7. The police officers must divert traffic from the parade route. Dictionary definition divert: to turn aside; distract 8. Without his glasses, John sees only indistinct figures on the movie screen. Dictionary definition indistinct: not sharply outlined Vocabulary Power

Unit 5, Lesson 19

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9. This chronicle of immigration gives a day-by-day account of a Swedish family’s journey to America in 1844. Dictionary definition chronicle: detailed account of historical events 10. Because of her high blood pressure, Jodie uses a minimal amount of salt for seasoning. Dictionary definition minimal: smallest amount or degree EXERCISE B

Multiple-Meaning Words

Several of the vocabulary words have more than one meaning. Using your understanding of these meanings, write the vocabulary word that best describes each of the following people or situations.

1. the main clause of a sentence

independent ________________

chronicle 2. to record a newsworthy event as it happens ________________ intrigue ________________

4. a person arguing with the boss

discord ________________

5. basic requirements for presidency

minimal ________________

6. the skyline of a city enshrouded in fog

indistinct ________________

7. a police officer rerouting traffic

divert ________________

8. telling a secret to a friend

disclose ________________

9. a sister or brother

sibling ________________

10. your hair on a windy day EXERCISE C

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3. a secret love affair between Jay and Lilly

disheveled ________________

Sentence Completion

Circle the word that best completes each sentence.

1. My sister Jenny is my only (intrigue, sibling, chronicle). 2. The endings of those mystery stories always (disclose, divert, intrigue) me. 3. (Indistinct, Minimal, Independent) stores face strong competition today. 4. We can prevent congestion if we (divert, intrigue, disclose) traffic from the accident scene. 5. There was (intrigue, chronicle, discord) between the siblings over the toy. 6. We decided to (disclose, chronicle, divert) our trip across the country.

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Using Synonyms

Freedom consists of two facets—freedom from negative aspects (such as poverty or repression) and freedom to do positive things (to move about freely, to express opinions in public, and to receive fair treatment under the law). Many of the words in this list relate to freedom. Word List

agenda

bleak

priority

sullen

askew

eloquence

serenity

tempo

backlog

novice

EXERCISE A

Synonyms Sample synonyms and dictionary definitions are provided.

Each boldfaced word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think of other words related to the synonym and write them on the line provided. Then, look up the vocabulary word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. backlog : buildup Synonyms include pileup. Dictionary definition backlog: accumulation 2. tempo : rate Synonyms include pace, speed. Dictionary definition tempo: rate or pace of an activity, timing 3. bleak : gloomy Synonyms include somber, grim.

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Dictionary definition bleak: dreary, depressing, barren 4. novice : beginner Synonyms include learner, greenhorn. Dictionary definition novice: beginner; learner 5. eloquence : persuasiveness Synonyms include articulateness, expressiveness. Dictionary definition eloquence: skillful and persuasive speaking, discourse marked by persuasion EXERCISE B

Clues Matching Sample dictionary definitions are given.

Use the clues below to guess each boldfaced word’s likely meaning. Write your guess above the word; then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. After a mild earthquake shook the house, the pictures on the wall were askew. Dictionary definition askew: out of line, crooked 2. Kareem distributed the agenda to be covered in the meeting. Dictionary definition agenda: list of things to be done Vocabulary Power

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3. Still angry with her sister, Gina wore a sullen expression and said nothing during dinner. Dictionary definition sullen: silent and ill-tempered 4. Mr. Thorndike enjoyed the shady serenity of his backyard. Dictionary definition serenity: state of complete calm 5. Replacing the broken windows is a priority, but we must also repaint all the rooms. Dictionary definition priority: thing that deserves first attention EXERCISE C

Word Association

Write the vocabulary word that best fits each example.

1. quality of a persuasive speech

eloquence ________________

backlog 2. buildup of orders that need to be filled ________________ agenda ________________

4. rate of speed of a piece of music

tempo ________________

5. most important goal to achieve

priority ________________

6. a silent and moody person

sullen ________________

7. a future without hope

bleak ________________

8. an inner feeling of peace and calm

serenity ________________

9. a cap sitting lopsided on your head

askew ________________

10. a beginning skateboarder

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Unit 5, Lesson 20

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. list of tasks a club wants to accomplish

novice ________________

Vocabulary Power

Name  Date 

Lesson 21

Class 

Latin Word Roots

Many English words have roots that come from Latin, the language spoken by the Romans. For example, the words vocal and revoke share the Latin root voc, which means “call” or “voice.” Recognizing Latin roots can often help you figure out the meanings of unfamiliar words. Word List

attain

endurance

infraction

specimen

consecutive

execute

retain

spectacle

duration

fragment

EXERCISE A

Word Roots Sample dictionary definitions are provided.

Write two words from the list that share each root. After each word, write its dictionary definition.

dur (hard, lasting) 1. endurance: ability to last a long time under stress 2. duration: period of time in which something lasts or exists frag, fract (break) 3. fragment: small part broken off, incomplete portion

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. infraction: breaking of a rule or law secut (follow) 5. execute: carry out a task or plan 6. consecutive: following one after another without interruption spec (look) 7. spectacle: something impressive or eye-catching that can be seen or viewed 8. specimen: sample or example of a class or kind tain (hold) 9. retain: continue to hold, keep 10. attain: reach a goal, achieve

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EXERCISE B

Usage

Draw a line through the italicized expression and, above it, write the vocabulary word that fits. fragment

1. Marlene picked up a piece of the broken vase that the cat had knocked over. endurance

2. For this twenty-five-mile race, runners must have the ability to hold up under stress. retain

3. Repeating or using new information can help you keep it in your memory. execute

4. Lamont, a skilled diver and swimmer, will now carry out a swan dive from the high board. duration

5. The period of existence of the Roman Empire was about five hundred years. attain

6. Brad hopes to reach the rank of Eagle Scout by the age of sixteen. specimen

7. Compared with most oak trees, this example is not very healthy. infraction

8. The soccer player caught the referee’s attention with his violation of the rules—deliberately tripping an opposing player. EXERCISE C

Questions and Answers

Answer yes or no to each question. Explain your answer, using your understanding of the boldfaced word. Accept all answers that show a clear understanding of the vocabulary word.

1. If a president of the United States cannot serve for more than two consecutive terms of four years each, may he serve for twelve years? No. There is a two-term limit. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Is a fireworks display an example of a spectacle? Yes. Most fireworks displays are eye-catching and visible.

3. Could you understand an entire conversation if you heard only a fragment of it? No, though it would depend on the content of the portion that you heard.

4. When you go to another state, do you retain your rights as a U.S. citizen? Yes, because all the states are part of one nation with a single Constitution guaranteeing those rights.

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Lesson 22

Class 

Suffixes That Form Adjectives

A suffix is a word ending that can be added to a word or root. Adding a suffix to a word or root may change its meaning. Words ending in the suffixes listed below are always adjectives.

Suffix

Meaning

Example

-able, -ible -ent -ive -ous, -ious -y

able or capable of performing/causing a specific action tending to full of; possessing have the character of; like; showing

terrible (terror + ible) absorbent (absorb + ent) creative (create + ive) joyous (joy + ous) slimy (slime + y)

Word List

affluent

comprehensible

fortuitous

imperative

arbitrary

deceptive

haughty

luscious

capable

diligent

EXERCISE A

Suffixes Sample dictionary definitions are provided.

Write two adjectives from the list for each suffix below; then, write the dictionary definition.

-y Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. arbitrary: determined by chance or wish and not by reason, need, or principle 2. haughty: scornfully proud, feeling superior to others -ent 3. diligent: showing careful and thorough effort 4. affluent: rich, having plenty of money, property, possessions -able, -ible 5. capable: having ability or skill 6. comprehensible: able to be understood -ous, -ious 7. luscious: pleasing to the senses, especially taste 8. fortuitous: lucky, occurring by chance

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-ive 9. deceptive: tending to mislead 10. imperative: expressing a command or plea EXERCISE B

Word Association

Write the vocabulary word that could describe each example.

1. a necessary duty

imperative ________________

2. arrests based on type of car

arbitrary ________________

3. a lucky break

fortuitous ________________

4. an upscale neighborhood

affluent ________________

5. a counterfeit bill

deceptive ________________

6. a chocolate candy that melts in your mouth

luscious ________________

7. someone who looks down his nose at you

haughty ________________

8. instructions that are easy to follow

comprehensible ________________

EXERCISE C

Synonyms

Write the vocabulary word that is a synonym for each word below. fortuitous ________________

2. delicious

luscious ________________

3. skilled

capable ________________

4. understandable

comprehensible ________________

5. misleading

deceptive ________________

6. industrious

diligent ________________

7. arrogant

haughty ________________

8. wealthy

affluent ________________

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Unit 5, Lesson 22

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. accidental

Vocabulary Power

Name  Date 

Lesson 23

Class 

Using Reading Skills

Learning from Context: Examples

When you encounter a new word in your reading, you can often use the context, or the surrounding words, to help figure out the word’s meaning. Sometimes the sentence includes examples that give you hints about the meaning of the word, as in the following sentence: The senator delivered a tirade on the new health-care bill; he shouted and pounded his fists on the podium, denouncing the wording. From the example, you can figure out that a tirade is a long, angry speech. EXERCISE A

Students should circle examples that provide clues. Sample definitions are provided.

In each sentence, circle the examples that help you understand the meaning of the boldfaced term. Then, write a possible definition of the word.

1. At the public hearing, several people gave testimony before the city council members. Ms. Mazoud said the new store would create too much traffic, while Mr. Nelson said it would create additional jobs. Testimony probably means spoken statements offered at a decision-making hearing. 2. The chest was full of bangles, inexpensive bead necklaces, and other trinkets. Trinkets probably means small ornaments. 3. Bears are omnivorous: they eat plants, such as berries; insects, such as ants and grubs; and also meat.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Omnivorous probably means eating both animals and plants. 4. Sam is a laconic person. When I asked if he were going to the concert, he answered just, “Nope.” When I asked why, he just shrugged his shoulders. Laconic probably means using few words. Ratings will vary. Look up each boldfaced word in a dictionary and write its definition. Then, before each word, rate the accuracy of your definition from Exercise A on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being most accurate. EXERCISE B

______ 1. testimony ______ 2. trinket ______ 3. omnivorous ______ 4. laconic

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Unit 5, Lesson 23

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Review: Unit 5 EXERCISE

Circle the word that best completes each sentence.

1. On one (fragment, specimen, agenda) of the torn-up note, Irene could read the words “Love, Joel.” 2. After the crushing defeat, the football team was in a (haughty, bleak, diligent) mood. 3. Miguel grew up in poverty, but today he has his own business and a(n) (affluent, independent, luscious) lifestyle. 4. I haven’t seen the movie yet, so please don’t (divert, disclose, execute) the ending. 5. It was a (fortuitous, comprehensible, deceptive) moment for us when we got tickets to the soldout concert. 6. Jamie is my older sister; my younger (spectacle, novice, sibling) is Jessica. 7. In the distance, they spotted two (independent, indistinct, consecutive) figures coming up the hill. 8. Of my three goals for the summer, learning to swim is my (fragment, priority, backlog). 9. The parade was a (tempo, spectacle, chronicle), featuring over a hundred brightly decorated floats and twelve of the best brass bands in the country.

11. Stephen was given detention for his serious (imperative, eloquence, infraction). 12. A huge (tempo, backlog, chronicle) of orders had to be filled. 13. Fourteen (consecutive, comprehensible, sullen) days of rain have created flooding problems. 14. In order to get the job, Jan had to show he was (capable, independent, haughty) of handling it. 15. It is (comprehensible, imperative, fortuitous) that I speak to the general immediately!

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Unit 5 Review

Vocabulary Power

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

10. Because of her (disheveled, imperative, arbitrary) appearance at the interview, she did not get the job.

Name  Date 

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Test: Unit 5 PART A

Circle the vocabulary word that you would most likely use in writing about each boldfaced topic.

1. history : chronicle, duration, tempo 2. music : backlog, imperative, tempo 3. laws : discord, endurance, infraction 4. meetings : agenda, spectacle, novice 5. speaking : specimen, eloquence, sibling PART B

Circle the letter of the word that best completes the sentence.

1. The garden contains many beautiful tea roses, but this ______ is especially lovely. a. sibling b. agenda c. fragment d. specimen 2. Science for Dummies features a(n) ______ article on cloning. a. comprehensible b. indistinct c. consecutive d. independent

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Sled dogs have amazing ______; they can pull a loaded sled for hours. a. serenity b. duration c. endurance d. discord 4. Judy managed to ______ her sense of humor despite losing her bid for the job. a. attain b. disclose c. divert d. retain 5. Karen was sick for four ______ days, Saturday through Tuesday. a. consecutive b. minimal c. imperative d. arbitrary 6. The banner hung ______, because the beam was crooked. a. arbitrary b. indistinct c. luscious

d. askew

7. The satisfying dinner included a(n) ______ selection of desserts. a. deceptive b. luscious c. sullen d. indistinct 8. The librarians worked overtime to check in the ______ of returns. a. duration b. discord c. backlog d. specimen 9. The ______ weather forecast caused the picnic to be canceled. a. fortuitous b. bleak c. capable d. haughty 10. Locating clean water was their top ______ on the deserted island. a. priority b. intrigue c. imperative d. testimony Vocabulary Power

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PART C

Circle the letter of the word that has the same meaning as the boldfaced expression.

b. attain

c. retain

d. chronicle

2. small a. diligent

b. minimal

c. consecutive

d. imperative

3. accidental a. capable

b. disheveled

c. arbitrary

d. fortuitous

4. beginner a. specimen

b. novice

c. tempo

d. imperative

5. a brother or sister a. fragment b. agenda

c. sibling

d. priority

6. state of complete calm a. serenity b. discord

c. eloquence

d. spectacle

7. period during which something lasts a. endurance b. infraction

c. agenda

d. duration

8. untidy a. indistinct

b. diligent

c. disheveled

d. deceptive

9. reveal a. divert

b. retain

c. intrigue

d. disclose

c. imperative

d. independent

10. not sharply outlined a. sullen b. indistinct

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1. reach a goal a. intrigue

PART D

Circle the word that means most nearly the opposite of the boldfaced word.

1. honest : haughty, deceptive, bleak 2. poor : arbitrary, affluent, luscious 3. cheerful : sullen, minimal, capable 4. expert : specimen, chronicle, novice 5. careless : diligent, consecutive, indistinct

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Unit 5 Test

Vocabulary Power

Name  Date 

Lesson 24

Class 

Using Synonyms

Have you ever found yourself thinking, “Aha!” “That’s it!” or “How true!”? These exclamations mark moments of insight. Such moments come when you see deeply into a situation or grasp a valuable truth about life. The words in this list can help you think, speak, and write about insights. Word List

crouch

envision

lurk

surpass

diverse

incompatible

superb

valiant

envelop

jog

EXERCISE A

Synonyms Sample synonyms and dictionary definitions are provided.

Each boldfaced word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think of other words related to the synonym and write them on the line provided. Then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. surpass : excel Synonyms include to exceed, outdo. Dictionary definition surpass: to go beyond in degree, quality, or performance 2. envelop : surround Synonyms include to wrap, cloak. Dictionary definition envelop: to enclose completely 3. jog : nudge Synonyms include rouse, trot.

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Dictionary definition jog: to give a slight shake to, to stimulate as if by shaking 4. envision : imagine Synonyms include to picture, conceive. Dictionary definition envision: to picture in the mind 5. diverse : different Synonyms include divergent, varied. Dictionary definition diverse: differing from one another 6. crouch : cringe Synonyms include to bend. Dictionary definition crouch: to lower body, especially with the knees bent, bow servilely 7. incompatible : conflicting Synonyms include not both true, incapable of coexistence. Dictionary definition incompatible: unable to exist together in harmony 8. superb : excellent Synonyms include first-rate, splendid. Dictionary definition superb: of unusually high quality

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9. valiant : brave Synonyms include fearless, heroic. Dictionary definition valiant: marked by bravery 10. lurk : wait Synonyms include to move furtively, to lie hidden. Dictionary definition lurk: to lie in wait in a hidden place, usually with evil intent EXERCISE B

Usage Accept all answers that show a clear understanding of the word. Use the meaning of the boldfaced word to answer each question. 1. In what way is the population of your town or city diverse? race, income level, age

2. If a piece of furniture were of superb quality, what would it be like? made from best woods, fine workmanship and design, strong construction, beautiful color

3. Describe two foods that you think are incompatible. chocolate sauce and spinach

4. What is an example of a valiant act? rescuing someone from drowning

5. What are some jungle animals that lurk, waiting for their prey? tigers, lions, cheetahs, cougars Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

EXERCISE C

Context Clues

Write the vocabulary word that fits each clue.

1. Fog could do this to a house.

envelop ________________

2. A come-from-behind racer could do this to the front runner.

surpass ________________

3. A hungry bear might do this at a campground.

lurk ________________

4. A photograph could do this to your memory of an event.

jog ________________

5. A hunter might do this in tall grass to stay hidden.

crouch ________________

6. People often do this about the future.

envision ________________

7. A hero is often considered this.

valiant ________________

8. Two people who don’t get along are considered this.

incompatible ________________

9. A wonderful tasting food could be called this.

superb ________________

diverse 10. A zoo with animals from around the world has this type of collection. ________________ 58

Unit 6, Lesson 24

Vocabulary Power

Name  Date 

Lesson 25

Class 

Words from Technology

The English language is ever changing. New words are added every year. Some of these words come from new or expanding fields of technology. Computer technology has brought many new words into the language. The ten words below can help you use and describe computer technology. Word List

byte

format

multimedia

save

delete

microprocessor

peripheral

zoom

disk

monitor

EXERCISE A

Computer Definitions Sample definitions are provided.

Look up each word in a dictionary and write the meaning that is related to computers.

1. save to store a record or other information in a computer’s memory so the information can be used again 2. delete to remove or erase 3. format a particular arrangement of words or data for display or storage 4. disk a card-shaped device used to store data magnetically 5. zoom to enlarge part of a picture, as if moving in with a camera for a close-up

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. multimedia combined use of several media, such as movies, photographs, printed text, and sound 7. microprocessor a tiny electronic device (chip) that contains the general processing instructions for the computer 8. monitor a cathode-ray tube used for display 9. peripheral a machine or device that works in combination with a computer, such as a printer or modem 10. byte the smallest unit of computer memory, usually shorter than a word EXERCISE B

Clues Matching

Write the vocabulary word that matches each clue.

1. This is often considered the brain of a calculator or computer.

microprocessor ________________

2. This kind of device must be hooked up to the computer to be useful.

peripheral ________________

3. You could store a list of names and addresses on this.

disk ________________

4. A table with columns and rows is an example of this.

format ________________

byte 5. This is the amount of memory needed to store a tiny piece of information. ________________

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6. An encyclopedia on computer that includes pictures and musical recordings is an example of this.

multimedia ________________

7. In a group photograph, you would do this to view one person’s face close up.

zoom ________________

8. To shorten a sentence, you would do this to several words in the sentence.

delete ________________

save 9. If you write a letter on a computer and want to edit it later, you would do this to the letter.________________

10. This device has a viewing screen similar to a television. EXERCISE C

monitor ________________

Usage

Answer each question using your understanding of the boldfaced word. Student answers will vary.

1. What is the format of this section? What change could you make in this format if you were redesigning the page?

2. Is a microprocessor an example of a peripheral? Explain.

3. Describe what a multimedia computer program called Animals of Africa might be like to use.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. If you save a document in a program, what are you doing?

5. Why might you delete a document on a disk?

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Unit 6, Lesson 25

Vocabulary Power

Name  Date 

Lesson 26

Class 

Using Synonyms and Antonyms

The English language is full of synonyms. A synonym is a word that has a similar meaning to another word. For example, the words hearty, well, and hardy are all synonyms for healthy. Knowing synonyms for words can help you choose the word that expresses a fact or thought exactly. For example, you might choose to say “elderly woman” rather than “old woman” if you want to show a respectful attitude. Knowing antonyms for words is also helpful. An antonym is a word that means the opposite, or nearly the opposite, of another word. For example, ill, unhealthy, and ailing are all antonyms for healthy. Word List

detached

imperceptible

meticulous

prevalent

hospitable

initial

pliant

temporary

humid

juvenile

EXERCISE A

Synonyms Sample synonyms and dictionary definitions are provided.

Each boldfaced word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think of other words related to the synonym and write them on the line provided. Then, look up the vocabulary word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. juvenile : childish Synonyms include immature. Dictionary definition juvenile: not fully grown, young, showing immaturity 2. temporary : brief Synonyms include momentary, short-term.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Dictionary definition temporary: lasting or serving for only a limited time 3. meticulous : finicky Synonyms include careful, attentive to details. Dictionary definition meticulous: extremely careful and precise, painstaking 4. detached : distant Synonyms include aloof, indifferent. Dictionary definition detached: separate, unconnected 5. hospitable : kind Synonyms include affable, gracious. Dictionary definition hospitable: inclined to treat guests with warmth and generosity, welcoming 6. imperceptible : invisible Synonyms include not sensed. Dictionary definition imperceptible: impossible or difficult to notice, slight, subtle 7. pliant : flexible Synonyms include flexible. Dictionary definition pliant: easily bent or shaped, bendable

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8. humid : muggy Synonyms include sultry, soggy. Dictionary definition humid: having a high amount of water or water vapor, wet 9. initial : beginning Synonyms include introductory, original. Dictionary definition initial: occurring at the beginning, first 10. prevalent : widespread Synonyms include widely accepted. Dictionary definition prevalent: widely or commonly occurring, commonplace, favored EXERCISE B

Antonyms Accept all words that qualify as antonyms. Knowing the antonym, or word most opposite in meaning, of a word strengthens your understanding of the word’s meaning. Write an antonym for each vocabulary word below. 1. initial

last ________________

6. humid

dry ________________

2. pliant

stiff ________________

7. detached

attached ________________

8. temporary

permanent ________________

sloppy 3. meticulous ________________

4. prevalent

uncommon ________________

5. juvenile

mature ________________

EXERCISE C

obvious 9. imperceptible ________________

10. hospitable

unfriendly ________________

Sentence Completion

Complete each sentence with the correct vocabulary word.

made us feel at home. temporary 2. The ________________ plastic fence was set up in November to help keep snow from blowing onto

the road. juvenile 3. During the movie, making noises, throwing popcorn, and other ________________ behavior

will not be tolerated! 4. After soaking in hot water for several hours, the thin strips of wood became pliant ________________ and could be woven together.

5. Furniture experts could tell that one of the chairs was antique and the other one new, but to the imperceptible average person the differences were ________________. initial 6. My ________________ impression of her was positive, but later I changed my mind.

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Unit 6, Lesson 26

Vocabulary Power

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

hospitable 1. We stayed with a(n) ________________ family in Guatemala, who welcomed us warmly and

Name  Date 

Class 

Lesson 27 Number Prefixes A prefix is a word part added at the beginning of a word or root. Some prefixes stand for a number, such as tri-, which means “three.” The prefix changes the root’s meaning. For example, the word trimonthly (tri + monthly) means “occurring every three months.” Six number prefixes, along with meanings and examples, are listed in the chart below. Prefix

Meaning

Example

Definition

semiunibiquadripentamilli-

half one two four five thousandth

semilunar unicycle bicep quadruped pentagon milliliter

shaped like a half moon cycle with one wheel a muscle with two points of origin a four-footed animal a five-sided figure one thousandth of a liter

Word List

biped

millisecond

semiannual

unidirectional

bisect

pentathlon

semicircle

unify

millennium

quadruple

EXERCISE A

Prefixes

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Write the words from the list that share the same prefix. Then, look up the meaning of each word in a dictionary and write its definition. Sample dictionary definitions are provided.

uni- (one) 1. unify: make into one unit 2. unidirectional: in one direction only penta- (five) 3. pentathlon: athletic contest in which each participant competes in five track and field events (sprinting, hurdling, long jumping, discus throwing, javelin throwing)

quadri- (four) 4. quadruple: multiply or be multiplied by four milli- (thousand) 5. millennium: a period of one thousand years 6. millisecond: a thousandth of a second Vocabulary Power

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semi- (half) 7. semicircle: half of a circle 8. semiannual: occurring twice a year bi- (two) 9. biped: an animal with two feet 10. bisect: to cut or divide into two parts EXERCISE B

Usage

If the boldfaced word is used correctly in the sentence, write correct above it. If not, draw a line through it and write the correct vocabulary word above it. semiannual

1. The solstice, a day with equal hours of night and day, is a unidirectional event, occurring in the fall and in the spring.

millennium

2. The year 2000 has been celebrated as the start of a new millisecond. quadruple

3. If they bisect the size of their cattle herd, which now contains one hundred cattle, they will have a herd of four hundred.

pentathlon

4. Mario’s strongest events in the millennium are the sprinting, hurdling, and long jumping, but he is weaker at throwing the discus and the javelin. correct

5. This unidirectional microphone will pick up the speaker’s voice but not other sounds from around Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

the room. EXERCISE C

Context Clues

Write the word that could describe each example. biped ________________

1. a human being

semicircle 2. arrangement of children to listen to a story read aloud ________________

3. cut a pizza into two halves

bisect ________________

4. combine two groups into one

unify ________________

5. time that is much faster than the blink of an eye

millisecond ________________

EXERCISE D

Some possible examples are semidark, semiarid, semiflexible,

Word Web and semiconductor.

Another meaning of the prefix semi- is “partial.” For example, semisecret information is not publicly announced but widely known. On a separate sheet of paper, work with a partner to create a web of words with the prefix semi-. Take turns giving or looking up the meaning of each word. 64

Unit 6, Lesson 27

Vocabulary Power

Name  Date 

Lesson 28

Class 

Using Reading Skills

Using a Dictionary: Multiple-Meaning Words

As you’ve probably noticed, many words have more than one meaning. In a dictionary entry for a word, these meanings are listed by number. Usually, the meanings are listed from most common to least common or from general to specific, as in the entry below. e

marshal (mär’sh l) n. 1. a military officer of the highest rank in some countries 2. a U.S. government officer who carries out court orders and has duties similar to those of a sheriff 3. the head of a fire department 4. the person in charge of a parade v. 1. to arrange or place troops in line for a parade or battle 2. to arrange, place, or set in order 3. to enlist and organize 4. to lead ceremoniously; to usher EXERCISE

The word marshal appears in each sentence below. Write the part of speech (noun or verb) and the number of the specific definition that fits the meaning of the word as it is used in the sentence.

1. Before we can make a decision, we need to marshal all the facts.

verb, 2 ________________

2. The marshal of the Memorial Day parade waved to the crowd from the back of a streamlined white convertible.

noun, 4 ________________

3. Colonel Rosencranz will marshal his troops on the ridge to wait for the enemy attack.

verb, 1 ________________

4. General Ferdinand Foch was the marshal of the French, English, Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

and American armies in World War I.

noun, 1 ________________

5. The fire marshal will speak at a schoolwide assembly this week on the topic of fire safety.

noun, 3 ________________

6. The president ordered a U.S. marshal to carry out the desegregation order of the federal court.

noun, 2 ________________

7. Volunteers are talking to people at grocery stores to try to marshal support for improving the city’s parks.

verb, 3 ________________

verb, 4 8. Each teacher should marshal her students down the steps to the gym. ________________

Vocabulary Power

Unit 6, Lesson 28

65

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Class 

Review: Unit 6 EXERCISE A

Circle the word that best completes each sentence.

1. The change in the position of the sculpture was (imperceptible, unidirectional, incompatible) to most museum visitors. 2. The guidance counselor encouraged Lena to try to (envision, envelop, unify) a successful future for herself. 3. To improve the overall performance of his computer, Ron is thinking of replacing the (millennium, multimedia, microprocessor) with a better one. 4. The community center holds (prevalent, semiannual, quadruple) potluck suppers in January and June for everyone in the neighborhood. 5. Don’t (zoom, lurk, jog) behind that curtain; come out and show yourself! 6. Harvey keeps (diverse, meticulous, temporary) records of every penny he saves or spends. 7. To get through the low passage in the cave, we had to (crouch, unify, delete) as we walked. 8. The information was easy to read because it was presented in the (monitor, byte, format) of a list. 9. The ambassador attempted to (delete, unify, surpass) the two sides at the bargaining table. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

10. The producers of television commercials expect children to be (incompatible, juvenile, pliant). EXERCISE B

Circle the vocabulary word that you would be most likely to use in writing about each boldfaced topic.

1. time : millisecond, disk, meticulous 2. sports : semicircle, byte, pentathlon 3. computers : diverse, pentathlon, disk 4. weather : envision, humid, microprocessor 5. children : juvenile, unify, lurk 6. animals : surpass, multimedia, biped

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Unit 6 Review

Vocabulary Power

Name  Date 

Class 

Test: Unit 6 PART A

Circle the answer that best completes each sentence.

1. An example of something that is pliant is ______. a. a wooden board c. a snow shovel b. a mirror d. a garden hose 2. A prevalent style of clothing is ______. a. a style worn by most people c. a style that is attractive b. a style worn by a few people d. a style that is unattractive 3. An example of something that could commonly envelop an industrial city is ______. a. a rainbow c. smog b. a plague of locusts d. a blanket of air freshener 4. An example of a temporary shelter is ______. a. an apartment building c. a tent b. a log cabin d. a doghouse

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. If you quadruple the number 4, the result is ______. a. 32 b. 16 c. 8 6. A semicircle looks most like ______. a. the letter O b. the letter C

c. the number 8 d. the letter I

7. An example of a biped is ______. a. a horse b. a worm

c. a bee

d. 1

d. a man

8. The function of a monitor is to ______. a. display words and images c. store information b. operate the computer d. send messages over telephone lines 9. If you rated a meal as superb, you thought the meal was ______. a. average b. terrible c. excellent d. unfilling 10. An example of something that might fill a byte of computer memory is ______. a. a letter of the alphabet c. an encyclopedia b. a chapter of a book d. a long list of companies

Vocabulary Power

Unit 6 Test

67

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continued

PART B

Choose the letter of the word that has nearly the same meaning as the word or phrase.

1. combined use of several forms of communication a. discourage b. pentathlon c. multimedia

d. millennium

2. go beyond a. surpass

d. zoom

b. unify

c. quadruple

3. machine or device that works in combination with a computer a. microprocessor b. byte c. millisecond d. peripheral c. envelop

d. lurk

5. differing from one another a. meticulous b. pliant

c. valiant

d. diverse

6. unconnected a. prevalent

c. semiannual

d. humid

7. inclined to treat guests kindly a. hospitable b. initial

c. superb

d. pliant

8. period of one thousand years a. pentathlon b. semicircle

c. millennium

d. millisecond

9. remove or erase a. jog

b. surpass

c. save

d. delete

b. initial

c. envelop

d. bisect

10. first a. unidirectional

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Unit 6 Test

b. detached

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. cut or divide into two parts a. envision b. bisect

Vocabulary Power

Name  Date 

Lesson 29

Using Synonyms

Class 

Sample synonyms and dictionary definitions are provided.

The English word dignity comes from a word used by the ancient Romans, dignus, meaning “worthy.” People who have dignity are worthy, or admirable, because they possess an inner strength and strong self-respect. The words in this list relate to the idea of dignity. Word List

abide

conspicuous

ponder

universal

ban

humane

token

virtue

catastrophe

merge

EXERCISE A

Synonyms

Each boldfaced vocabulary word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think of other related words and write them on the line provided. Then, look up the vocabulary word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. humane : merciful Synonyms include benevolent, considerate. Dictionary definition humane: showing kindness, mercy, or compassion for humans or animals 2. abide : await Synonyms include wait, stay. Dictionary definition abide: to wait for, withstand

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. universal : general Synonyms include broad, sweeping, catholic. Dictionary definition universal: affecting a major portion, occurring everywhere 4. merge : combine Synonyms include incorporate, blend. Dictionary definition merge: to unite, come together without abrupt change 5. ban : forbid Synonyms include reject, exclude, bar. Dictionary definition ban: prohibit, especially by official order 6. conspicuous : noticeable Synonyms include obvious, perceptible, exposed to view. Dictionary definition conspicuous: easy to notice 7. ponder : consider Synonyms include reflect on, study, contemplate. Dictionary definition ponder: weigh in the mind, think about carefully and thoroughly 8. token : symbol Synonyms include sign, symbol, emblem. Dictionary definition token: outward sign or expression of something else Vocabulary Power

Unit 7, Lesson 29

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continued

9. catastrophe : disaster Synonyms include calamity, tragedy, ruin. Dictionary definition catastrophe: a great tragic event, often sudden 10. virtue : goodness Synonyms include integrity, morality, innocence. Dictionary definition virtue: moral excellence EXERCISE B

Usage

If the boldfaced word is used correctly in the sentence, write correct above it. If not, draw a line through it and write the correct word above it. merge

1. Toys Unlimited and Toyco, Inc., plan to abide into one company. correct

2. Do you know why they ban glass bottles at sporting events? token

3. Please accept these flowers as a virtue of my thanks for all your work. correct

4. The desire for respect is universal among human beings. abide

5. I just cannot ponder a dirty house when relatives are coming. conspicuous

6. Jason was humane in the team photo because he alone was out of uniform. EXERCISE C

Questions and Answers

Answer each question with a yes or no. Use the meaning of the boldfaced word to explain your answer. Student answers will vary; sample answers follow.

1. Is hitting your finger with a hammer a catastrophe?

2. In your opinion, is being patient a virtue? Yes. Calmness and self-control in the face of delays or annoyances are qualities most people appreciate.

3. Is the Humane Society a good name for a group that accepts lost or mistreated animals? Yes. The group treats the animals kindly, finds them homes, and nurses injuries.

4. Do you ponder your choice of clothes each day? Yes or no. Students may or may not give careful thought to what they wear each day.

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Unit 7, Lesson 29

Vocabulary Power

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

No. Although the accident does cause pain and suffering, a catastrophe is more serious and has a much larger impact.

Name  Date 

Lesson 30

Class 

Suffixes That Form Verbs

A suffix is a word ending that can be added to a word or root. Some suffixes, such as -ize, -ify, and -ate tell you that the word is a verb. The suffix -ize means “to become like” or “to treat with.” The suffixes -ate and -fy mean “to make” or “to cause to become.”

Word List

customize

facilitate

indicate

mediate

electrify

fortify

integrate

socialize

fabricate

glorify

EXERCISE A

Multiple-Meaning Words Sample dictionary definitions are provided.

Some of the vocabulary words have more than one meaning. Use context clues to determine which meaning of the boldfaced word is being used. Then, write the dictionary definition that applies.

1. Saphron had to indicate her desire to join the committee. indicate: to state or express briefly

2. I just knew he would fabricate an excuse! fabricate: to invent, create

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. My Fair Lady tells the tale of a professor who decides to socialize a poor working woman. socialize: to make social, especially to fit or train for a social environment

4. Ambassadors frequently have to mediate disputes between countries. mediate: to act as an intermediary agent to reconcile two parties

5. Gerry decided to customize his new car with a unique paint job. customize: to build, fit, or alter according to individual specifications

6. We need to fortify our house against the incoming hurricane. fortify: to erect fortifications, strengthen

7. Schools were required to integrate in the 1960s. integrate: to end the segregation of and bring into equal membership in society

Vocabulary Power

Unit 7, Lesson 30

71

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continued

8. The elaborate dresses and stunning bouquets seemed to glorify the banquet hall. glorify: to cause to seem better than the actual condition

9. The coach knew that a touchdown was needed to electrify the crowd. electrify: to excite intensely or suddenly as if by electric shock

10. An attentive puppy will facilitate her recovery from her illness. facilitate: to make easier, help bring about EXERCISE B

Usage

If the boldfaced word is used correctly in the sentence, write correct above it. If not, draw a line through it and write the correct vocabulary word above it. mediate

1. Rochelle is part of a team of volunteers who help integrate serious disagreements between other students. correct

2. In this part of the car factory, the workers fabricate hoods, corner panels, and bumpers. indicate

3. These dials on the control panel of the airplane mediate altitude, air pressure, and speed. integrate

4. After we conduct the survey, we will indicate the results with the information we already have. electrify

5. The acrobats’ amazing final trick is guaranteed to fortify the audience. EXERCISE C

Word Association

Write the vocabulary word that matches each example. customize ________________

2. add extra stones to make the wall of a castle thicker

fortify ________________

3. go out to movies and parties with other people

socialize ________________

4. praise someone as one of the greatest people who ever lived

glorify ________________

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. design a kitchen so a person in a wheelchair can use it easily

facilitate 5. make the adjustment of recent immigrants to a new country easier ________________

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Unit 7, Lesson 30

Vocabulary Power

Name  Date 

Lesson 31

Class 

Compound Words

Some words are a combination of two or more other words. Northwest, wild rice, and know-it-all are all compound words. Notice that a compound word may be spelled “closed up,” with a hyphen joining the words, or with a space between the words. Word List

cross-reference

overhang

self-conscious

underscore

cross section

overhaul

single-minded

undertake

high-minded

self-assured

EXERCISE A

Compound Words

Analyze the words in each compound word to match it with the correct definition.

1. reference from one part of a book, index, or file to another part containing related information

cross-reference ________________

2. take upon oneself; decide to do

undertake ________________

3. having one driving purpose or goal

single-minded ________________

4. having or showing confidence

self-assured ________________

5. projecting over the edge of a building

overhang ________________

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cross section 6. a cut straight through the middle of something to reveal its contents ________________

7. having high ideals; noble

high-minded ________________

8. renovate thoroughly

overhaul ________________

9. aware of oneself; especially, uncomfortably self-aware

self-conscious ________________

10. to emphasize, such as underlining EXERCISE B

underscore ________________

Clues Matching

Write the word that matches the clue.

1. If you did this to an old motor scooter, it could run like new.

overhaul ________________

2. You could do this with a new sport.

undertake ________________

3. You can see the rings of a tree in this.

cross section ________________

4. If you believed in volunteering your time, you might be called this.

high-minded ________________

overhang 5. Part of a tall building to which Christmas lights and banners are attached. ________________

6. A person who neglects everything else for one goal is this. Vocabulary Power

single-minded ________________ Unit 7, Lesson 31

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7. “See page 23” is an example.

cross-reference ________________

8. You could do this by drawing a line under an important word.

underscore ________________ self-conscious

9. You might feel this way if someone made fun of your hairstyle. ________________ 10. Someone who is at ease with many kinds of people is this.

self-assured

________________

EXERCISE C

Usage Accept all answers that show a clear understanding of the vocabulary word. Answer each question using your understanding of the vocabulary word. 1. Why might a person undertake a difficult task? because the person enjoys a challenge

2. In giving a speech, what could you do to underscore the main idea? repeat it

3. Describe a cross section of an orange. round shape with pie-shaped divisions and rind around the edge; small hole in center; seeds visible

4. Give an example of a cross-reference you might see in a textbook. “For more on George Washington’s childhood, see chapter 2.”

5. Why might someone be single-minded about a goal? if the person were determined to be successful in reaching that goal Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. What is something a self-assured person might say? “I’ve studied hard, so I think I will probably do well on the test.”

7. Name three places you could find an overhang. cliff face, 14-story building, ship

8. What qualities might a high-minded person have? courage, generosity, honesty

9. Other than a car, what machines could be improved by an overhaul? lawnmowers, motorcycles, garbage disposals

10. What is something that might make a person feel self-conscious? discovering his or her shirt was on inside out

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Unit 7, Lesson 31

Vocabulary Power

Name  Date 

Lesson 32

Class 

Using Reading Skills

Learning from Context: Comparison and Contrast

When you encounter a new word in your reading, you can often use context clues, or clues in the surrounding text, to figure out the word’s meaning. Sometimes you can compare or contrast the word with more familiar words that have similar or opposite meanings. Certain words, such as like, also, and too, can signal a comparison. Other words, such as but, unlike, and however, can signal a contrast. Comparison

The new owner plans to demolish the bookstore and tear down the bakery next to it too. Explanation: The word too signals a comparison: the bookstore and bakery are being treated alike, so you can guess that demolish means “tear down.” Contrast

That remark is not a compliment; it’s an affront. Explanation: The word not signals a contrast between the word compliment and the word affront. So you can guess that affront means “insult.” EXERCISE

In each sentence, circle the word that signals a comparison or contrast. Then, write the meaning of the boldfaced word based on the context clues.

1. Cassie drew a valid conclusion from the evidence, but Raymond’s conclusion was incorrect. but; correct

2. The hundred-year-old oak tree in front of the school is still vigorous; the younger maples are

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

also flourishing. also; strong, full of active growth

3. Conchita’s response to the first question was vague; however, she answered the second question very clearly. however; not clear

4. Like the downtown areas in many small towns that have vacant shops, our downtown also has several empty stores on Main Street. like, also; empty

5. In contrast to the vast lawns found in Richwood, the yards in this neighborhood are tiny. in contrast to; very great in size

6. Emperor Ming of the planet Mondo is a vindictive character, and his son, the prince, is equally vengeful. is equally; vengeful

Vocabulary Power

Unit 7, Lesson 32

75

Name  Date 

Class 

Review: Unit 7 EXERCISE A

Circle the letter of the word that could describe each example.

1. putting others’ needs ahead of your own a. ban b. virtue c. underscore

d. catastrophe

2. a law that applies to all members of a society a. conspicuous b. single-minded c. universal

d. high-minded

3. a civil war that leaves a country in ruins a. catastrophe b. token c. cross section

d. overhang

4. a card sent to someone as a sign of affection a. token b. virtue c. cross-reference

d. universal

5. entry in a book’s index telling you where to find more information on a topic a. underscore b. ban c. token d. cross-reference 6. how a red bandage would look on your nose a. self-assured b. overhang c. conspicuous

d. high-minded

7. Red Cross workers who comfort and help suffering people a. universal b. humane c. self-conscious

d. single-minded

EXERCISE B

Circle the word in parentheses that best completes each sentence.

1. Marcus always has a positive attitude; I wish I were as (self-assured, self-conscious, humane) as he is. 2. The grand finale of the fireworks display never fails to (fortify, underscore, electrify) the crowd. 3. Hank used pieces of plywood he found in a dumpster to (integrate, fabricate, overhaul) a playhouse for his little brother. 4. Do you believe that smiles always (ponder, indicate, ban) happiness? 5. Does the park (ban, merge, customize) dune buggies on this beach? 6. Many people take time to (mediate, socialize, overhang) on weekends. 7. Anita decided to (overhaul, integrate, undertake) the monumental task of entertaining the six-year-olds.

76

Unit 7 Review

Vocabulary Power

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

8. thin slice from the middle of an object that allows you to see its internal parts under a microscope a. overhang b. catastrophe c. ban d. cross section

Name  Date 

Class 

Test: Unit 7 PART A

Circle the letter of the correct definition for each boldfaced word.

1. single-minded a. having one brain b. having great confidence 2. merge a. melt

b. mumble

3. ponder a. think about carefully b. show kindness

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. underscore a. estimate

b. repair

c. have one driving goal d. having high ideals c. combine

d. complain

c. settle differences d. walk without purpose c. attempt

d. emphasize

5. integrate a. repeat a message b. serve as a sign of something else

c. unite with something else d. make easy or easier

6. customize a. make into a customer b. change to suit personal desires

c. adopt a new custom d. give high praise to

7. facilitate a. make easier b. see through

c. make up d. breathe into

8. undertake a. speed past b. prepare for death

c. decide to attempt d. travel beneath

9. overhang a. make too large b. sit behind

c. protrude over the edge d. pester someone constantly

10. abide a. develop affection for b. weigh in the mind Vocabulary Power

c. prohibit by official order d. wait patiently for Unit 7 Test

77

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PART B

Circle the letter of the expression that best completes each sentence.

1. An example of something you might mediate is ______. a. the meaning of a religious belief c. a baseball game b. a conflict between two people d. a cheeseburger 2. A high-minded person has ______. a. noble ideals b. an uncertain attitude toward others

c. an advanced college degree d. foolish thoughts

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Vocabulary Power Workbook - Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

GLENCOE LANGUAGE ARTS

VOCABULARY
POWER

GRADE 8

To the Student

This Vocabulary Power workbook gives you the practice you need to expand your vocabulary
and improve your ability to understand what you read. Each lesson focuses on a single
vocabulary concept or on a theme that ties together the list of words in the Word Bank. You
then have several opportunities to learn the words by completing exercises on definitions,
context clues, and word parts.

You can keep track of your own progress and achievement in vocabulary study by using
the Student Progress Chart, which appears on page v. With your teacher’s help, you can score
your work on any lesson or test. After you know your score, use the Scoring Scale on pages
vi–vii to figure your percentage. Then mark your score (or percentage correct) on the Student
Progress Chart. Share your Progress Chart with your parents or guardians as your teacher
directs.

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States
Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or means, or
stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Send all inquiries to:
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, Ohio 43240
ISBN 0-07-826228-3
Printed in the United States of America
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 024 05 04 03 02 01

CONTENTS

Student Progress Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v
Scoring Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi

Unit 1 Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Lesson 1 Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Lesson 2 Word Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Lesson 3 Word Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Lesson 4 Using Reference Skills—Using a Dictionary Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Lesson 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Test

Unit 2 Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Lesson 6 Recognizing Base Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Lesson 7 Prefixes That Mean “not” or “the opposite of” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Lesson 8 Using Reading Skills—Learning from Context: Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Lesson 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Test

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Unit 3 Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Lesson 10 Prefixes That Tell Where . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Lesson 11 Greek Word Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Lesson 12 Suffixes That Form Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Lesson 13 Using Reference Skills—Using a Thesaurus: Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Lesson 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Test

Unit 4 Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Lesson 15 Using Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Lesson 16 Prefixes That Tell When . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Lesson 17 Using Reading Skills—Learning from Context: Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Lesson 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Test

Unit 5 Using Context Clues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Lesson 19 Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Lesson 20 Latin Word Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Lesson 21 Suffixes That Form Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Lesson 22 Using Reading Skills—Learning from Context: Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Lesson 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Test

Unit 6 Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Lesson 24 Words from Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Lesson 25 Using Synonyms and Antonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Lesson 26 Number Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Lesson 27 Using Reading Skills—Using a Dictionary: Multiple-Meaning Words . . . . . . . .65
Lesson 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Test
Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Unit 7 Suffixes That Form Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Lesson 29 Compound Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Lesson 30 Using Reading Skills—Learning from Context: Comparison and Contrast . . .75
Lesson 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Lesson 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Review
Test Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Homophones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Unit 8 Borrowed Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Lesson 33 Using Test-Taking Skills—Analogies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Lesson 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Lesson 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Lesson 36
Review
Test

Pronunciation Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

STUDENT PROGRESS CHART

Fill in the chart below with your scores, using the scoring scale on the next page.

Name: ____________________________

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Vocabulary Power Grade 8 v

Number of ItemsSCORING SCALE

Use this scale to find your score. Line up the number of items with the number correct. For example, if 15 Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
out of 16 items are correct, the score is 93.7 percent (see grayed area).

Number Correct

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7 14.3 28.6 42.9 57.1 71.4 85.7 100
8 12.5 25 37.5 50 62.5 75 87.5 100
9 11.1 22.2 33.3 44.4 55.6 66.7 77.8 88.9 100
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11 9.1 18.1 27.2 36.3 45.4 54.5 63.6 72.7 81.8 90.9 100
12 8.3 16.7 25 33.3 41.7 50 58.3 66.7 75 83.3 91.7 100
13 7.7 15.3 23.1 30.8 38.5 46.1 53.8 61.5 69.2 76.9 84.6 92.3 100
14 7.1 14.3 21.4 28.6 35.7 42.8 50 57.1 64.3 71.4 78.5 85.7 92.8 100
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19 5.3 10.5 15.8 21.2 26.3 31.6 36.8 42.1 47.4 52.6 57.9 63.1 68.4 73.7 78.9 84.2 89.4 94.7 100
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21 4.8 9.5 14.3 19 23.8 28.6 33.3 38.1 42.8 47.6 52.3 57.1 61.9 66.7 71.4 76.1 80.9 85.7 90.5 95.2
22 4.5 9.1 13.7 18.2 22.7 27.3 31.8 36.4 40.9 45.4 50 54.5 59.1 63.6 68.1 72.7 77.2 81.8 86.4 90.9
23 4.3 8.7 13.0 17.4 21.7 26.1 30.4 34.8 39.1 43.5 47.8 52.1 56.5 60.8 65.2 69.5 73.9 78.3 82.6 86.9
24 4.7 8.3 12.5 16.7 20.8 25 29.2 33.3 37.5 41.7 45.8 50 54.2 58.3 62.5 66.7 70.8 75 79.1 83.3
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27 3.7 7.4 11.1 14.8 18.5 22.2 25.9 29.6 33.3 37 40.7 44.4 48.1 51.9 55.6 59.2 63 66.7 70.4 74.1
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29 3.4 6.9 10.3 13.8 17.2 20.7 24.1 27.6 31 34.5 37.9 41.4 44.8 48.3 51.7 55.2 58.6 62.1 65.5 69
30 3.3 6.7 10 13.3 16.7 20 23.3 26.7 30 33.3 36.7 40 43.3 46.7 50 53.3 56.7 60 63.3 66.7
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35 2.9 5.7 8.6 11.4 14.3 17.1 20 22.9 25.7 28.6 31.4 34.3 37.1 40 42.9 45.7 48.6 51.4 54.3 57.1
36 2.8 5.6 8.3 11.1 13.9 16.7 19.4 22.2 25 27.8 30.6 33.3 36.1 38.9 41.7 44.4 47.2 50 52.7 55.6
37 2.7 5.4 8.1 10.8 13.5 17.1 18.9 21.6 24.3 27 29.7 32.4 35.1 37.8 40 43.2 45.9 48.6 51.4 54
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vi Grade 8 Vocabulary Power

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30 70 73.3 76.7 80 83.3 86.7 90 93.3 96.7 100
31 67.7 70.9 74.2 77.4 80.6 83.9 87.1 90.3 93.5 96.7 100
32 65.6 68.8 71.9 75 78.1 81.2 84.4 87.5 90.6 93.8 96.9 100
33 63.6 66.7 69.7 72.7 75.8 78.8 81.8 84.8 87.8 90.9 93.9 96.9 100
34 61.8 64.7 67.6 70.6 73.5 76.5 79.3 82.4 85.3 88.2 91.2 94.1 97.1 100
35 60 62.9 65.7 68.9 71.4 74.3 77.1 80 82.9 85.7 88.6 91.4 94.3 97.1 100
36 58.3 61.1 63.8 66.7 69.4 72.2 75 77.8 80.6 85.7 86.1 88.9 91.7 94.9 97.2 100
37 56.8 59.5 62.2 64.9 67.6 70.3 72.9 75.7 78.4 81.1 83.8 86.5 89.2 91.9 94.6 97.3 100
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Vocabulary Power Grade 8 vii



Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Lesson 1 Using Synonyms

Home is a place that contains many kinds of memories—some good, some painful, some humorous,

some sad. Different kinds of memories help make up our idea of home. In this lesson, you’ll learn

some words to use when you want to talk about what home means to you.

Word List hysteria tranquillity wholesome
anonymous lurch valid woe
awed perish
humility

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. EXERCISE A Synonyms
Synonyms are words with similar meanings. Each boldfaced word below is paired with a synonym
whose meaning you probably know. Think of other words related to the synonym and write them
on the line provided. Then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. perish : die
Dictionary definition

2. woe : sadness
Dictionary definition

3. tranquillity : peacefulness
Dictionary definition

4. lurch : stagger
Dictionary definition

5. hysteria : uncontrollable emotion
Dictionary definition

6. humility : lack of pride
Dictionary definition

7. anonymous : unknown
Dictionary definition

8. awed : admiring
Dictionary definition

Vocabulary Power Unit 1, Lesson 1 1

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

continued

9. wholesome : healthy
Dictionary definition

10. valid : proper
Dictionary definition

EXERCISE B Sentence Completion
Write the vocabulary word that best completes each sentence.

1. Despite her impressive accomplishments, the scientist kept her attitude of ________________.
2. We were definitely ________________ the first time we visited the Capitol Building in

Washington, D.C.
3. “My heart is broken,” sighed the heroine of the drama, “and I know I shall ________________

before the sun rises.”
4. Anyone who wishes to try out for the soccer team must have a(n) ________________

certificate of good health from a doctor.
5. The Bosnian people suffered much ________________ in the brutal war.
6. As the asteroid approached Earth, the people’s ________________ grew.
7. The engine started at last and the moped began to ________________ forward.
8. The person who donated $10,000 wished to remain ________________.
9. It’s important that the food you eat is ________________ and fresh.
10. After an especially busy day, I enjoy the ________________ of lying on my bed listening to

some quiet music.

2 Unit 1, Lesson 1 Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Lesson 2 Using Synonyms

As Dorothy learned in The Wizard of Oz, there really is no place like home. One of the reasons each

home is unique is that each person who helps create a home is unique. The words in this lesson relate

to the special place we call home.

Word List indifference simultaneous urban
alliance meager taunt varied
alternative portray
commence

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. EXERCISE A Synonyms
Each boldfaced word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think
of other words related to the synonym and write them on the line provided. Then, look up the
word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. taunt : tease
Dictionary definition

2. indifference : lack of preference
Dictionary definition

3. commence : begin
Dictionary definition

4. meager : thin
Dictionary definition

5. simultaneous : at the same time
Dictionary definition

6. urban : city
Dictionary definition

7. varied : different
Dictionary definition

8. alliance : association
Dictionary definition

Vocabulary Power Unit 1, Lesson 2 3

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

continued

9. alternative : choice
Dictionary definition

10. portray : picture
Dictionary definition

EXERCISE B Sentence Completion
Write the vocabulary word that best completes the sentence.

1. Because the two soccer games were ________________, we could not watch them both.
2. “What time does the movie ________________?” Jason asked, worried about being late.
3. Whether Shawna comes to the party is a matter of complete ________________ to most of

the club members.
4. The two countries formed a secret ________________ to defend each other in case of military

attack.
5. The menu choices were extremely ________________. I found several things I wanted to order.

EXERCISE C Usage
Answer the questions based on your understanding of the boldfaced word.

1. Do you think a meager meal would satisfy you if you were very hungry? Why or why not?

2. What are some advantages to living in an urban setting? What are some disadvantages?

3. How would you respond if someone were to taunt you at school?

4. Name a film, TV show, or book that you feel accurately portrays teenage life. Why did you choose
this particular film, TV show, or book?

5. What do you feel is a good alternative to settling disputes with violence? Explain your answer.

4 Unit 1, Lesson 2 Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Lesson 3 Word Parts

The main meaning of a word is contained in its root or base word. Base words are roots that are com-
plete words. Prefixes can be affixed to the beginning and suffixes to the end of the root to change its
meaning. Knowing the meanings of word roots, prefixes, and suffixes can help you make an educated
guess about the meaning of a new word. In this lesson, you’ll identify some common roots, prefixes,
and suffixes and learn how they work together to give meaning to words.

Word List dramatize mutation precedence
adjourn monotonous perception secluded
anthropology mutate
circumnavigate

EXERCISE A Word Association
Read the clues. Then, answer the question.

1. The root of mutation comes from mutare, the Latin word for “change.” If you add the noun suffix
-ion to this root, what might be the word’s meaning?

2. Certain suffixes can change the part of speech of a word root. For example, -ate placed at the end
of a root forms a verb. How would you define mutate?

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 3. The suffix -ion makes a root a noun. To perceive is “to observe.” If you add the suffix -ion, what might
perception mean?

4. Prefixes can be affixed to the beginning of roots to change their meanings. The root jour/journ
means “day.” Adding the Latin prefix ad-, meaning “to” or “toward,” creates the word adjourn,
which probably means

5. Some words are formed without prefixes or suffixes by combining two roots. The Greek root
anthrop/anthropo means “human being.” The root logy comes from the Greek word for “word”
and now means “study” or “science.” What is anthropology?

Vocabulary Power Unit 1, Lesson 3 5

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

continued

6. The prefix mono- means “one.” The Greek root ton means “tone” or “sound.” The suffix -ous
forms an adjective. If someone’s speech is monotonous, how might you describe it?

7. The Latin word for boat is navis. Adding a verb suffix to this root forms the word navigate. If the
Latin prefix circum- means “around,” what might you be doing if you circumnavigate the world?

8. Some words have both prefixes and suffixes added to roots. The root cede/cess comes from the Latin
for “go.” Pre- is a prefix meaning “before,” while -ence is a noun suffix. What might the word
precedence mean?

9. Another verb suffix is -ize. Our word root drama means the same as the Greek word drama, which
comes from the word for “do” or “act.” What would you do if you were to dramatize a story?

10. The root clude comes from the Latin word for “close.” The prefix se- means “apart” or “away
from.” If a cabin is secluded, what other words could you use to describe it?

EXERCISE B Word Webs
Choose a root, prefix, and suffix from those you learned about in this lesson. On a separate sheet
of paper, draw three word webs like the one shown below. In the first, write the root. In the next
two webs, write the prefix and suffix. Fill in the “rays” with as many words as you can that contain
that root, prefix, or suffix. Then, exchange webs with a partner and discuss the meanings of the
words you have listed.

6 Unit 1, Lesson 3 Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Lesson 4 Word Families

Word families are groups of words that contain the same roots or base words. Base words are roots
that are complete words. The root or base word gives a word its main meaning. A prefix or suffix com-
bined with the root or base word gives it a different meaning. In this lesson, you’ll learn words in the
same word families.

Word List document itinerary levity
belligerent impulsive levitate rebellious
compel initiative
doctrine

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. EXERCISE A Base Words and Word Roots
Look up each boldfaced word in a dictionary and write its meaning. Then, use the information in
the dictionary entry to underline the root or base word.

1. rebellious
2. belligerent
3. doctrine
4. document
5. levity
6. levitate
7. initiative
8. itinerary
9. impulsive
10. compel

EXERCISE B Sentence Completion
Write the vocabulary word that best completes the sentence.

1. Ms. Jackson said she was proud of the class for taking the ________________ in solving the
problem of litter around the school building and sports fields.

2. The clowns’ performance ended the evening on a note of ________________, very different
from the show’s sober beginning.

Vocabulary Power Unit 1, Lesson 4 7

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

continued

3. The television program was about the Truman ________________, President Harry Truman’s
belief that the United States had to oppose the Soviet Union following World War II.

4. You can lead a horse to water, but you certainly can’t ________________ it to drink!
5. The government soldiers had a difficult time defeating the ________________ forces in battle

because they often disappeared into the jungle.
6. “For my final trick, I shall make my assistant ________________ in the air above the audience!”

announced the magician.
7. You will never convince the judge unless you are able to ________________ your charges,

proving that they are true.
8. Will the Grand Canyon be on your ________________ for your camping trip?
9. We all felt that Rebecca was ________________ when she volunteered for the committee

without even knowing what she would have to do.
10. I could tell the dog was very ________________ by the way it barked viciously at everyone

who walked by its yard.

EXERCISE C
Answer each question based on your understanding of the boldfaced vocabulary word.

1. What are some situations when levity is out of place?

2. What places would be on the itinerary for your dream vacation?

3. What might be a reason some people are belligerent?

4. Describe the last time you did something impulsive.

5. What steps would you take to document a case against a factory for polluting a nearby stream?

8 Unit 1, Lesson 4 Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Lesson 5 Using Reference Skills

Using a Dictionary Entry

A word and the information given in a dictionary about the word is called an entry. Look at the sample
entry below.

Guidewords

preadaptation/precipitator Pronunciation spelling

precipitate (pri si’ p ta¯ t’) v. 1. to throw violently, hurl: She addressed the difficult morale
situation into which genetic engineering has precipitated modern society. 2. to bring about:
Entry He precipitated a riot that led to the arrest of dozens of people. 3. to cause to separate from a
solution: The scientist precipitated the salt from the fluid. 4. to condense from a vapor and fall
as rain or snow: I hope the water in the clouds will soon precipitate as rain.

Definition(s) Sample phrase or sentence

EXERCISE
Use the sample entry to answer each question.

1. Which entry would you find on this page—preach, precious, or precisely?

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2. Which meaning of precipitate is being used in the following sentence?
The fiery speech of the rebel leader precipitated the attack on the palace.

3. On which syllable does the primary accent fall in the word precipitate?

4. Use the first meaning of precipitate in a sentence of your own.

5. Use the fourth meaning of precipitate in a sentence of your own.

Vocabulary Power Unit 1, Lesson 5 9

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Review: Unit 1

EXERCISE
Circle the letter of the word that best completes each sentence.

1. The committee voted to ______ the meeting until after the tornado alert had passed.

a. adjourn b. perish c. taunt d. lurch

2. The need to rebuild some of the nation’s ______ slums will be an important part of the

candidate’s election campaign. c. urban d. belligerent
a. anonymous b. secluded

3. Kristin’s ______ for Washington, D.C., included the White House, the Capitol, and the Supreme

Court Building.

a. precedence b. itinerary c. humility d. alliance

4. It’s a shame this poem is ______ because I would love to know who wrote it.

a. secluded b. anonymous c. urban d. belligerent

5. “The needs of my children take ______ over every other demand on my time,” explained the

employee. b. document c. indifference d. precedence
a. humility

6. No matter how much they ______ Brian about his project, they cannot make him angry.

a. portray b. circumnavigate c. taunt d. compel

7. Although the businessman has been very successful, his complete lack of ______ has made Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

many people dislike him.

a. indifference b. perception c. humility d. initiative

8. Ms. Dean had to ______ many of her successes in her application for the Master Teacher Award.

a. document b. compel c. adjourn d. commence

9. Watch how the opossums ______ forward and then fall when they are pretending to be dead.

a. perish b. lurch c. adjourn d. levitate

10. “I predict that the cells of the insect will ______ after its exposure to radiation,” said the scientist

in the film.

a. adjourn b. dramatize c. levitate d. mutate

10 Unit 1 Review Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Test: Unit 1

PART A
Circle the letter of the word that best completes each sentence.

1. After the Civil War, the ______ Southern states were welcomed back into the Union.

a. alternative b. rebellious c. varied d. simultaneous

2. Do you know which actor will ______ President Lincoln in the new film biography?

a. portray b. document c. commence d. compel

3. Although Woodbridge Middle School’s players were much taller than we were, our volleyball team

was not ______ by them.

a. secluded b. awed c. varied d. valid

4. The novelist had been asked to ______ her most recent best-seller, Hope in the Dawn, for a

television movie.

a. adjourn b. taunt c. dramatize d. lurch

5. I found the speeches so ______ that I couldn’t help yawning every two minutes!

a. impulsive b. mutant c. wholesome d. monotonous

6. Ola expressed ______ when we asked her which ride we should go on first, so we decided

without her.

a. humility b. initiative c. indifference d. tranquillity

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 7. Because the two comments were ______, I couldn’t understand either one.
a. simultaneous b. anonymous c. monotonous d. impulsive

8. After the young children giggled during the ceremony, their parents spoke to them about their

inappropriate moment of ______.

a. hysteria b. precedence c. humility d. levity

9. “There’s no way you can ______ me to reveal the location of the secret meeting place,”

thundered the hero to his captors.

a. perish b. compel c. taunt d. commence

10. The commission wrote that no ______ to the automobile was likely to be developed over the

next twenty-five years.

a. alternative b. itinerary c. alliance d. precedence

Vocabulary Power Unit 1 Test 11

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

continued

PART B
For each group of words, circle the letter of the vocabulary word that best fits.

1. slim, insufficient, sparse, ______

a. varied b. meager c. secluded d. impulsive

2. rise, float, lift, ______

a. levitate b. portray c. compel d. perish

3. good, official, approved, ______ c. valid d. meager
a. simultaneous b. belligerent

4. calm, peacefulness, order, ______

a. doctrine b. alliance c. hysteria d. tranquillity

5. transformation, change, alteration, ______

a. initiative b. mutation c. precedence d. itinerary

PART C

Circle the number of the word that is most nearly the opposite of the boldfaced word.

1. thoughtful b. anonymous c. meager d. impulsive
a. rebellious

2. happiness b. tranquillity c. humility d. levity
a. woe

3. laziness b. alternative c. indifference d. levity Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
a. initiative

4. identical c. secluded d. meager
a. monotonous b. varied

5. finish b. taunt c. commence d. compel
a. mutate

12 Unit 1 Test Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Lesson 6 Using Synonyms

Even the sturdiest trees sometimes lean. We are like trees—sometimes harsh winds blow and force us to lean

on other people for support. This lesson provides us with words to use when exploring the ways we depend

on each other.

Word List intimate resolve uncomprehendingly
absurd persistently scowl vivid
arrogant postpone
competently

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. EXERCISE A Synonyms
Each boldfaced vocabulary word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably
know. Think of other words related to the synonym and write your ideas on the line provided.
Then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. intimate : close
Dictionary definition

2. scowl : frown
Dictionary definition

3. arrogant : conceited
Dictionary definition

4. resolve : decide
Dictionary definition

5. uncomprehendingly : without understanding
Dictionary definition

6. postpone : delay
Dictionary definition

7. persistently : stubbornly
Dictionary definition

8. absurd : foolish
Dictionary definition

Vocabulary Power Unit 2, Lesson 6 13

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

continued

9. competently : adequately
Dictionary definition

10. vivid : brilliant
Dictionary definition

EXERCISE B Multiple-Meaning Words
Many words in English have more than one meaning. Each meaning, however, is based on the
meaning of the word root. The word resolve, for example, is from the Latin root resolvere
meaning “to loosen,” “to dissolve,” or “to release.” A dictionary entry for resolve lists many
different meanings, but all of them are related to the root meaning, “to loosen.” Use a dictionary
to help you write the precise definition of resolve as it is used in each sentence below.

1. The instructor urged her students to resolve the mathematics problem into simple elements.

2. The negotiator tried unsuccessfully to resolve the dispute between management and labor.

3. Medical researchers are trying to resolve the chemical imbalance that triggers addictions.

4. As the debate continued, her resolve to support the “pro” side began to weaken.

EXERCISE C Word Association
For each group of words, write the vocabulary word that best fits.

1. proud, conceited, boastful ________________

2. delay, cancel, suspend ________________

3. skillfully, with ability, capably ________________

4. realistic, lifelike, bright ________________

5. determine, decide, settle ________________

14 Unit 2, Lesson 6 Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Lesson 7 Recognizing Base Words

Words are often made up of different parts. The main meaning of a word is contained in its root or

base word. Base words are roots that are complete words. Words that have the same root or base

word are in the same word family. In this lesson, you’ll learn to identify some common base words

and explore how adding prefixes and suffixes can change the meaning of words.

Word List hospitality rehabilitate significant
acknowledge longevity reserve unseemly
combatant neutralize
defraud

EXERCISE A Word Association
Read the clues. Then, answer the question.

1. To habilitate something is to prepare it, outfit it, or get it ready for a certain function. The word
habilitate comes from a family of Latin words meaning “ability.” What is the purpose of an institu-
tion designed to rehabilitate criminals?

2. What is the meaning of the word neutralize, which is created by adding the verb suffix -ize, mean-
ing “to engage in a (specified) activity,” to the adjective neutral?

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 3. Seemly behavior is conduct that is suitable, appropriate, in good taste, and pleasant. Our word
comes from the Viking word for fitting. What are some synonyms for unseemly?

4. The noun suffix -ant usually means “a person who engages in this activity.” Name a famous com-
batant from U.S. history.

5. Synonyms of the word fraud include trickery, deception, and cheating. De- is a prefix that often
creates a verb from a noun. What are some words that mean about the same as defraud?

6. Our modern word hospital comes from the Latin word meaning “guest.” Hospital was used in ear-
lier times to mean a place where travelers could sleep and eat. What things might you do to show
hospitality to a guest in your home?

Vocabulary Power Unit 2, Lesson 7 15

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

continued

7. We use the common word long to describe both distance and length of time something exists.
What comes to your mind when you add the noun suffix -ity to long to create longevity?

8. The word reserve is based on the Latin word reservare, meaning “to keep.” What items, such as
foods, would you reserve for an emergency such as a flood?

9. Many English words originate in the Latin base word signum, meaning “sign.” Name some syn-
onyms of the adjective form significant.

10. Unlike many modern English words, knowledge does not come from Latin. This base word comes
from cnawan, the Old English word for know. An Old English verb form of this root is oncnawan.
What are some synonyms for our word acknowledge, which comes from this Old English verb?

EXERCISE B Dictionary Definitions Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Look up each boldfaced word in a dictionary and write the meaning. Using the information in a
dictionary, underline the base word.

1. rehabilitate
2. neutralize
3. unseemly
4. combatant
5. defraud
6. hospitality
7. longevity
8. reserve
9. significant
10. acknowledge

EXERCISE C Crossword Puzzle
On a separate sheet of paper, create a crossword puzzle using at least eight of the vocabulary
words. Then, exchange puzzles with a partner and complete the puzzle you receive.

16 Unit 2, Lesson 7 Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Lesson 8 Prefixes That Mean “not” or “the opposite of”

Knowing the meaning of prefixes can help you discover the meanings of unknown words. A large num-
ber of prefixes mean “not” or “the opposite of.” Some of these prefixes are non-, ir-, ig-, un-, mal-, anti-,
counter-, contra-, de-, dis-, in-, im-, op-, and il-. Be careful, though. Not all words that begin with these
letter combinations have the meaning of the prefix. When in doubt, look up the word in the dictionary.

Word List ignoble irreversible nondescript
contradiction improbable malodorous unabashed
deflate inhumane
dismantle

EXERCISE A Dictionary Definitions
Underline the prefix in each of the boldfaced words below. Base your answers on the clues. Check
the definition of each vocabulary word by looking it up in a dictionary and writing its meaning.

1. unabashed: If you abash someone, you destroy the person’s self-confidence or cause embarrass-

ment. How might you describe someone who is unabashed?

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Dictionary definition
2. dismantle: A mantle was a kind of cloak worn during the seventeenth century, often as a symbol

of authority or power. The Middle French word desmanteler meant “to remove a mantle.” Today
we use the English word dismantle in a general sense to mean what?

Dictionary definition
3. ignoble: History shows us many examples of noble people. Name some historical figures you

consider to be ignoble.
Dictionary definition
4. contradiction: The Latin root dict means “to tell,” and our English word contradict means “to tell
or speak against.” Adding the noun suffix -ion gives what meaning to the word contradiction?

Dictionary definition

Vocabulary Power Unit 2, Lesson 8 17

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

continued

5. improbable: Most people agree that it is probable the sun will rise tomorrow morning. What is an
event you consider to be improbable?

Dictionary definition
6. malodorous: Something that is odorous has a strong smell, either pleasant or unpleasant. The

prefix mal- means “bad.” What are some things that you consider malodorous?

Dictionary definition
7. deflate: When you inflate a basketball or tire, you blow air into it. Describe what happens when

you deflate a basketball or tire. In what way can a person be deflated?

Dictionary definition
8. nondescript: Describe and description are based on the Latin root describere (“to describe”). On

the basis of the meanings of describe and description, what might the adjective nondescript mean?

Dictionary definition
9. irreversible: Many processes in life and science are reversible. Can you name some that are irreversible?

Dictionary definition Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
10. inhumane: Do you have a Humane Society in your community? Many people believe that we should

treat animals in a humane manner. To what inhumane practices might members of the Humane
Society be reacting?

Dictionary definition

EXERCISE B

Words that begin with prefixes meaning “not” or “the opposite of” appear often in newspapers and
magazines. Read an article. Then, on a separate sheet of paper, make a list of words containing the
prefixes discussed in this lesson. After each word, use your vocabulary skills to make an educated
guess about its meaning. Then, write the dictionary definition of the word.

18 Unit 2, Lesson 8 Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Lesson 9 Using Reading Skills

Learning from Context: Definitions

The context of a word is the environment, or the other words in the sentence. You can use the context
to discover the meaning of an unknown word. Look for key words and even definitions elsewhere in
the sentence to help you define the unknown word.

EXERCISE
Read each sentence and use context clues to determine the meaning of the boldfaced word. Underline
key words in the sentence that help you define the word. Then, write its probable meaning on the line.

1. I never dreamed that Tanya could be so vindictive; her demand for revenge took us by surprise.

2. Tyler is adept at coordinating group projects; he can unify members around a common goal.

3. I’m afraid that tired, old, familiar story about the farmer is very trite.

4. Grandmother was a bastion of strength and inspiration, a rock against all the storms of misfortune.

5. Hasidism is considered one of the many different branches or sects of Judaism.

6. Their criticism did not denigrate us; they couldn’t discount our project.

7. The National Guard was called in to quell the violent demonstration and restore order to the city.

8. The cheerleaders tried to galvanize the passive crowd by their lively actions and chants.

9. The prestigious statue, standing on its black marble pedestal, overlooked the park.

10. The editorial was a lampoon, harshly satirizing the candidate’s homely features and awkward manner.

Vocabulary Power Unit 2, Lesson 9 19

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Review: Unit 2

EXERCISE A
For each group of words, circle the letter of the vocabulary word that belongs.

1. clear, bright, sharp, ______

a. absurd b. vivid c. improbable d. trite

2. retain, keep, book, ______

a. reserve b. neutralize c. resolve d. quell

3. dull, boring, uninteresting, ______

a. absurd b. nondescript c. unabashed d. adept

4. cruel, mean, vicious, ______

a. arrogant b. unabashed c. inhumane d. unseemly

5. cheat, swindle, steal, ______

a. postpone b. reserve c. dismantle d. defraud

EXERCISE B
Circle the letter of the word that best completes the sentence.

1. The league was forced to ______ all games because of the heat wave.

a. rehabilitate b. deflate c. galvanize d. postpone

2. Our basketball coach hoped that our smaller, faster players would ______ the other team’s Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

taller players.

a. neutralize b. resolve c. lampoon d. defraud

3. Alan felt that he would first have to ______ the lawnmower to understand how it worked.

a. acknowledge b. rehabilitate c. dismantle d. galvanize

4. Sean argued so ______ for going to the movie that I finally agreed to go.

a. improbably b. unseemly c. persistently d. uncomprehendingly

5. The prison program tried to ______ criminals and prepare them for life outside of prison.

a. denigrate b. rehabilitate c. postpone d. deflate

20 Unit 2 Review Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Test: Unit 2

PART A
Circle the letter of the word that best fits.

1. Which word would describe the way you’d feel if you found yourself in a ridiculous situation?

a. absurd b. vivid c. nondescript d. vindictive

2. How would someone probably respond if you called him or her an unflattering name?

a. resolve b. defraud you c. scowl at you d. reserve you

3. Up the down stairs, cool heat, and going under an overpass are examples of ______.

a. hospitality b. combatants c. longevity d. contradiction

4. How would you be doing a task if you had no idea how to proceed?

a. persistently c. competently

b. uncomprehendingly d. improbably

5. A tortoise that lives for one hundred years is an example of ______.

a. longevity b. hospitality c. a pedestal d. a contradiction

6. You would probably ______a meeting if not enough people could show up for it.

a. rehabilitate b. dismantle c. postpone d. lampoon

7. Stealing, lying, and cheating are examples of what kind of conduct?

a. trite b. arrogant c. irreversible d. ignoble

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 8. To what kind of friend would you tell a special secret?

a. an unseemly one c. an inhumane one

b. a vindictive one d. an intimate one

9. What would you expect when you check into an expensive resort hotel?

a. a bastion b. hospitality c. longevity d. a scowl

10. You would most likely remember a ______ dream. d. trite
a. nondescript b. malodorous c. vivid

11. How would someone who is well trained in lifesaving techniques perform the job of lifeguard?

a. uncomprehendingly c. competently

b. persistently d. improbably

12. Which word is an antonym for, or the opposite of, “blow up”?

a. quell b. deflate c. dismantle d. reserve

Vocabulary Power Unit 2 Test 21

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

continued

13. Which of the following words describes the way a barnyard probably smells to most people?

a. absurd b. nondescript c. unabashed d. malodorous

14. Having your appendix taken out is a procedure like this.

a. irreversible b. unseemly c. inhumane d. trite

15. Society will gain if it can ______ people sent to prison for committing crimes.

a. dismantle b. intimate c. neutralize d. rehabilitate

PART B
Circle the letter of the word that best fits with the others.

1. decide, determine, conclude, ______

a. postpone b. resolve c. defraud d. quell
d. pedestal
2. soldier, sailor, marine, ______ d. unseemly
d. nondescript
a. sect b. contradiction c. combatant d. significant

3. improper, impolite, unsuitable, ______

a. improbable b. inhumane c. arrogant

4. poised, unashamed, confident, ______

a. unabashed b. intimate c. ignoble

5. conceited, proud, stuck-up, ______

a. absurd b. arrogant c. unabashed

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

22 Unit 2 Test Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Lesson 10 Using Synonyms

Sometimes it’s easy to tell when you reach an important turning point. Other times you may not know
you have arrived at a crossroad until later. Either way, the choices people make always have conse-
quences. Taking one road always leads to a destination, even if you’re not sure where you’re going. In
this lesson, you’ll learn words that relate to making decisions.

Word List lapse serene testimony
abundant loiter summon verbal
complex plight
enclose

EXERCISE A Synonyms
Each boldfaced word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think
of other words related to the synonym and write your ideas on the line provided. Then, look up
the boldfaced word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. lapse : decline

Dictionary definition

2. serene : calm

Dictionary definition

3. summon : call

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Dictionary definition

4. plight : predicament

Dictionary definition

5. complex : complicated

Dictionary definition

6. abundant : plentiful

Dictionary definition

7. enclose : surround

Dictionary definition

8. verbal : associated with words

Dictionary definition Unit 3, Lesson 10 23

Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

continued

9. testimony : statement
Dictionary definition

10. loiter : stand around
Dictionary definition

EXERCISE B Word Association
Cross out the word that does not belong with the others.

1. plight, problem, testimony, jam
2. knotty, complex, complicated, abundant
3. summon, trap, coop, enclose
4. written, verbal, serene, spoken
5. linger, lapse, delay, loiter
EXERCISE C Context Clues
Answer each question, based on your knowledge of the boldfaced word.
1. In what plight might travelers in the desert find themselves?

2. What is one technique you use to stay serene before a stressful event?

3. Why might store owners not like people to loiter around their entrances?

4. What is the most complex meal you have ever prepared? What made it so complex?

5. Describe a time when you had a lapse of concentration. What happened as a result?

24 Unit 3, Lesson 10 Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Lesson 11 Prefixes That Tell Where

Knowing the meaning of prefixes can help you discover the meanings of unknown words. A number
of prefixes tell “where” and provide a meaning that relates to location. Some of these prefixes are ab-,
ad-, de-, ex-, in-, inter-, intra-, per-, sub-, and trans-. In this lesson, you’ll learn words that use five of
these “where” prefixes. Be careful, though. Not all words that begin with these letter combinations
have the meaning of the prefix. When in doubt, look up the word in a dictionary.

Word List intervention perforate transfix
abdicate intramural perpetual transmission
abduction intravenous
intermediate

EXERCISE A Word Association
Underline the prefix in each of the boldfaced words. Answer the question. Then, check the
definition of the boldfaced word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. transmission: The prefix trans- is a “where” prefix that means “across” or “through.” The Latin root

miss means “send.” What might be the meaning of these two word elements when combined with

the noun suffix -ion? Why is this word also used to name an important part of an automobile?

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Dictionary definition
2. transfix: The root fix comes from the Latin word meaning to “fasten” or “pierce.” If you experience

something that has the power to transfix you, what words could you use to describe the experience?

Dictionary definition
3. abdicate: Another prefix that relates to location is ab-, which means “from.” The root dic, the same

one used in such words as dictate, diction, and predict, means “tell.” What would a king be doing if he
were to abdicate his throne?
Dictionary definition
4. abduction: Another common Latin root, duc, means “to lead” and is used in words like conduct and
conductor. If police are investigating the abduction of a child, what is another word for this crime?

Dictionary definition Unit 3, Lesson 11 25

Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

continued

5. perpetual: The “where” prefix per- has the meaning of “through” or “throughout.” The prefix can
be combined with a root that means “to go to.” What might be the meaning of the adjective per-
petual formed by this root and prefix?
Dictionary definition

6. perforate: The Latin root forare means “to bore” or “to drill.” If a machine is designed to perforate
something, what is it probably doing?
Dictionary definition

7. intermediate: The Latin prefix inter- means “between,” while the root med, medi means “middle.”
If something is located in an intermediate position, where would you find it?

Dictionary definition
8. intervention: The root ven/veni comes from the Latin word for “come.” What are some situations

in which a police officer might take part in an intervention?

Dictionary definition Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
9. intramural: A similar prefix, intra-, means “within,” “during,” or “inside of.” Mur is a Latin root

meaning “wall.” When you play an intramural sport, whom are you playing against? How does
this kind of activity differ from interscholastic sports?

Dictionary definition

10. intravenous: The English word vein comes from the Latin word vena. Venous is the adjective

form. If you receive an intravenous injection rather than a shot in a muscle or just under your

skin, where does the needle go?

Dictionary definition

EXERCISE B Finding “Where” Prefixes
Words that begin with prefixes that tell “where” appear often in newspapers and magazines. Read a
newspaper or magazine article. Then, on a separate sheet of paper, make a list of the words you
find containing the prefixes discussed in this lesson. After each word, use your vocabulary skills to
make an educated guess about its meaning. Then, use a dictionary to write its definition.

26 Unit 3, Lesson 11 Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Lesson 12 Greek Word Roots

In this lesson, you’ll learn ten useful English words based on Greek roots. Knowing the meanings of Greek roots

can help you make an educated guess about the meaning of a new word. Sometimes, however, the exact

meaning of the new word isn’t clear from the root. It’s always safer to look up new words in a dictionary.

Word List hydrophobia phobia phonograph
apathetic pathos phonetics sophisticated
autonomous philosophical
autopsy

EXERCISE A Word Association
Read the clues and answer the question. Then, look up the boldfaced word’s definition in a
dictionary and write the definition on the second line.

1. Phon, phono is a common Greek root that means “sound,” “speech,” or “voice.” Adding a suffix to

this root creates the word phonetics. What subject do you think is studied in the science of phonetics?

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Dictionary definition
2. Sometimes words are formed by joining two roots and their meanings, rather than by adding a

prefix or suffix to a root. What is the literal meaning of phonograph, a word created by joining the
Greek root graph “write” to phono? What is another name for this machine?
Dictionary definition
3. Since the Greek root aut/auto means “self” or “same” and nomos means “law,” what is an
autonomous country?
Dictionary definition
4. Opt, a root that comes from the Greek word for “sight,” is used in our words optical and optician.
The word autopsy is formed by adding the prefix auto- to the root opt. Why might a doctor
perform an autopsy on a dead body?

Dictionary definition
5. Phobia is a Greek root that means “fear.” We use the same word in English to describe a certain

kind of feeling about a specific object or idea. How would you describe this feeling?

Dictionary definition Unit 3, Lesson 12 27

Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

continued

6. You probably know the Greek root hydr/hydro from such words as hydraulic, hydrogen, hydro-
electric, and hydrant. From what special fear does someone with hydrophobia suffer?

Dictionary definition
7. “Suffering” or “feeling” is the meaning of the Greek root path/patho. If a work of art like a painting,

poem, or play creates pathos in the people who experience it, what might they be feeling?

Dictionary definition
8. The meaning of the root and the part of speech may be changed by the addition of different

prefixes and suffixes. The prefix a- is a negative prefix, while the suffix -ic forms an adjective. How
might you describe someone who is apathetic?
Dictionary definition
9. The Greek root soph means “wise.” In what way is someone who is sophisticated also wise?

Dictionary definition
10. Phil/philo is a Greek root meaning “loving” or “having a special fondness or interest in.” When the

roots philo and soph are combined, the new word philosophical is formed. What does a
philosophical person love?
Dictionary definition

EXERCISE B Sentence Completion
Write the word that best completes the sentence.

1. It’s very hard to get students to serve on committees because so many people are ________________
about school issues.

2. Darcie’s mom let us play some of the old ________________ records she has kept from the 1960s.
3. All of my conversations with Scott are very ________________ — we’re both voracious readers.
4. A special tutor helped Jason overcome his ________________ of mathematics and attain a B+ on the

exam.
5. The representative from the territory argued that his people deserved to be a(n) ________________ nation.

28 Unit 3, Lesson 12 Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Lesson 13 Suffixes That Form Nouns

When a suffix is added to a word or root, the word’s use in the sentence is often changed. Some com-
mon suffixes that change a word or root into a noun are -ant or -ent, -ate, -oid, -ory, -tude, -ite, and
-an or -ian. Some noun suffixes refer to the person who performs an activity, while others mean the
activity itself. For example, the verb act (“to perform”) may be changed to actor (“a person who per-
forms’’) or action (“performance”). In this lesson, you’ll explore how noun suffixes are used to create
different words.

Word List dormitory lavatory occupant
adherent gratitude mandate urbanite
authoritarian humanoid
certitude

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. EXERCISE Word Association
Read the clues and answer the question. Then, look up the boldfaced word’s definition in a
dictionary and write the definition on the second line.

1. As a noun suffix, -ate means “function,” “office,” or “rank.” Our word mandate comes from the Latin
word manus, meaning “hand,” and mandare, meaning “to entrust.” If a court delivers a mandate,
what is it doing?
Dictionary definition

2. To adhere to something means “to follow,” “to give support to,” or “to believe in.” The noun suffix
-ent, like the more common suffix -er, means “one who.” Name a religion, political party, or other
belief of which you are an adherent.
Dictionary definition

3. The noun suffix -ant is a variation of -ent. To occupy something is to live in it or be located in it.
Who is the occupant of the desk to your right? Of the home next to yours?

Dictionary definition
4. The noun suffix -ory comes from Latin and means “place for.” This suffix is used with many differ-

ent words, some of which are Latin roots. The Latin root dorm means “to sleep.” What is the
main purpose of a dormitory?
Dictionary definition

Vocabulary Power Unit 3, Lesson 13 29

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

continued

5. The Latin root lav means “to wash.” What activity occurs in a lavatory?

Dictionary definition
6. Another noun suffix you may be familiar with is -oid, which means “resembling” or “similar to.” If

aliens from outer space are described as humanoid, what features might the aliens have?

Dictionary definition
7. Another noun suffix is -tude, which means “the state of being” or “the condition of.” Many English

words are based on the Latin root grat, meaning “thankful.” How would you define the noun gratitude?

Dictionary definition
8. Words like certain, certify, and certainly are based on the Latin root cernere meaning “to decide”

or “to judge.” Another word that uses this root is certitude. What might be its meaning?

Dictionary definition
9. A common noun suffix is -an or -ian. It means “being one of,” “related to,” or “a member of.” The

root author comes from the Latin word meaning “power.” What words might you use to describe
a leader who is an authoritarian?

Dictionary definition
10. One more common noun suffix is -ite. It means “someone who is a follower of” or “a resident of.” You

can find this suffix attached to many different words. One word is urbanite, based on the Latin root urb,
meaning “city.” In your opinion, what are some advantages and disadvantages of being an urbanite?

Dictionary definition

30 Unit 3, Lesson 13 Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Lesson 14: Using Reference Skills

Using a Thesaurus: Synonyms

A thesaurus (from the ancient Greek word for treasure) is a useful reference work that lists synonyms (and
often antonyms) for thousands of words. The synonyms vary slightly in meaning, and the listing is
designed to help you choose just the right word. Some thesauruses list the words in an index. A reference
number guides you to a listing in the main part of the thesaurus. This is the way the most famous the-
saurus, originally compiled by Peter Roget (row-ZHAY) in the mid-nineteenth century, is organized. Other
thesauruses arrange the words in alphabetical order. The entry word is followed by a list of synonyms and,
sometimes, antonyms (opposites). In this lesson, you’ll get practice in using a thesaurus to find synonyms.

EXERCISE
Below you’ll find some entries from a thesaurus. Study the entries. Then, answer the questions.

assail v. ambush, assault, attack, batter, beat, invade, raid, storm, strike, wallop, waylay
demure adj. bashful, gentle, innocent, modest, quiet, reserved, shy, timid
impediment n. affliction, bar, barrier, blockage, difficulty, flaw, obstacle, obstruction, snag
lucid adj. clear, clear-cut, coherent, direct, easy, intelligible, logical, simple, understandable
1. Which synonyms for demure seem to you to express a positive feeling?

A negative feeling?

Explain your answers.

2. Which synonym for assail seems to you to be the strongest in its feeling?

Which seems the mildest?
3. Suppose you are having trouble deciding whether to use “coherent” or “intelligible” as a synonym

for lucid. How would you find out exactly how the two words differ in meaning?

4. Impediment appears here as a noun. The verb form of this word is impede. Based on this
thesaurus entry, what might be some synonyms for the verb impede?

Vocabulary Power Unit 3, Lesson 14 31

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Review: Unit 3

EXERCISE A
Circle the word that does not belong with the others.

1. follower, believer, supporter, authoritarian
2. plentiful, perpetual, in good supply, ample
3. adherent, free-standing, self-governing, independent
4. punch, drill, bore, enclose
5. problem, difficulty, mandate, jam

EXERCISE B
Circle the word in parentheses that best completes the sentence.

1. After losing the election, Margo lost interest in politics and became (abundant, serene, apathetic).
2. The figure skater glided in a (serene, perpetual, verbal) way across the ice.
3. Throwing pies in people’s faces is not the most (autonomous, intermediate, sophisticated) kind of

comedy, but it can be funny anyway.
4. Middle or (intermediate, complex, perpetual) school comes between elementary and high school.
5. The old woman expressed (certitude, gratitude, hydrophobia) to the firefighters who had rescued her.
6. The king decided to (summon, transfix, perforate) all of the nobles in the kingdom to discuss the crisis.
7. Some coaches are relaxed and easy with their team members, while others can be quite

(intramural, intermediate, authoritarian), putting in place many rules and expecting obedience.
8. The inventor claimed to have invented a(n) (perpetual, intravenous, abundant) motion machine,

one that would run forever without needing a source of energy.
9. The farmer built a new corral to (perforate, enclose, summon) his sheep and goats.
10. The governor followed the (abduction, intervention, mandate) of voters and signed the bill into law.

32 Unit 3 Review Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Test: Unit 3

PART A
Circle the letter of the word that best completes the sentence.

1. Troy’s score on the ______ test section was higher than that on the mathematics section.

a. verbal b. intramural c. autonomous d. apathetic

2. The veterinarian gave the lamb an ______ injection of vitamins.
a. intervention b. intermediate c. intravenous d. intramural

3. The advertisement was addressed to “______,” so I just tossed it in the wastebasket.

a. Adherent b. Abundant c. Humanoid d. Occupant

4. Mozart’s opera ______ from the Seraglio is about an attempted kidnapping that takes place in a
Turkish sultan’s palace.
a. Abduction b. Intervention c. Transmission d. Plight

5. Greg lost the chess game because he had a short ______ of concentration and made a single

bad move.

a. plight b. lapse c. mandate d. certitude

6. The mountain sunset was so beautiful that it had the power to ______ everyone in our hiking group.

a. transfix b. enclose c. perforate d. abdicate

7. A knowledge of ______ can be a great help when you try to learn a foreign language.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. a. hydrophobia b. transmission c. certitude d. phonetics

8. I wish people wouldn’t ______ on the corner of our block.

a. abdicate b. loiter c. summon d. enclose

9. The ______ of the trapped miners captured the sympathy of the entire country.

a. mandate b. phobia c. lapse d. plight

10. Terence’s sprained ankle was so severe that the quick ______ of a doctor was required.

a. transmission b. pathos c. intervention d. gratitude

Vocabulary Power Unit 3 Test 33

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

continued

PART B
Circle the letter of the word that is most nearly an antonym, or the opposite, of the boldfaced word.

1. excitable b. philosophical c. autonomous d. intravenous
a. perpetual

2. doubt b. gratitude c. intervention d. certitude
a. pathos

3. simple b. intermediate c. abundant d. verbal
a. complex

4. keep b. loiter c. enclose d. discard
a. transfix

5. affectionate b. perpetual c. autonomous d. abundant
a. apathetic

PART C
Circle the letter of the word that best matches each clue.

1. People buy certain products when a celebrity gives one of these.

a. a phonograph b. a testimony c. a mandate d. certitude

2. This is something that can happen to people only after they are dead.

a. autopsy b. intervention c. abduction d. hydrophobia

3. Without this, you would not be able to drive a car anywhere. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

a. an adherent b. a phobia c. a testimony d. a transmission

4. A New Yorker is one, and so is a Chicagoan.

a. urbanite b. authoritarian c. adherent d. occupant

5. In this, you’d find many beds.

a. testimony b. lavatory c. dormitory d. mandate

34 Unit 3 Test Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Lesson 15 Using Synonyms

The desire to make mischief is widespread, especially among children. What do you think makes peo-

ple eager to play tricks on others? The words in the list below relate to such mischief.

Word List invigorating pact rogue
comply invincible reckless vibrant
haggle obstruction
imply

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. EXERCISE A Synonyms
Each boldfaced word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think
of other words related to the synonym and write them on the line provided. Then, look up the
boldfaced word in a dictionary and write its definition.

1. pact : agreement
Dictionary definition

2. vibrant : spirited
Dictionary definition

3. haggle : bargain
Dictionary definition

4. comply : obey
Dictionary definition

5. invincible : unconquerable
Dictionary definition

6. obstruction : obstacle
Dictionary definition

7. rogue : rascal
Dictionary definition

8. imply : suggest
Dictionary definition

Vocabulary Power Unit 4, Lesson 15 35

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

continued

9. reckless : heedless
Dictionary definition

10. invigorating : energizing
Dictionary definition

EXERCISE B Context Clues
Write the vocabulary word that could describe each example.

1. an agreement between two countries to limit nuclear weapons ________________
2. a person begs, causes mischief, and then skips town ________________
3. someone running out into a busy intersection without looking ________________
4. city streets full of people walking, talking, and having a good time ________________
5. to follow the instructions of a boss at work ________________
6. a brisk walk on a frosty winter morning ________________
7. a plastic toy stuck in a drainpipe and slowing the flow of water ________________
8. using your tone of voice to suggest that something is wrong ________________
9. to negotiate the price of an item at a yard sale ________________
10. how a chess player feels who has won the last hundred games he has played ________________

EXERCISE C Word Association
Circle the word that does not belong with the others.

1. alive, invigorating, unresponsive, vibrant
2. embezzle, negotiate, barter, haggle
3. suggest, deduce, mean, imply
4. mighty, invincible, unconquerable, vulnerable
5. obstruction, impediment, passage, barrier

EXERCISE D Description
Using one or more of the vocabulary words, describe mischief or a trick you’ve experienced,
observed, or read about.

36 Unit 4, Lesson 15 Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Lesson 16 Using Definitions

The word fantastic means “out of this world” and comes from the Greek word phantastikos, meaning
“producing mental images.” Fantastic (or fantasy) stories might take place at any time. What sets fantasy
stories apart from other kinds of stories are imaginary settings or supernatural events. The words in this
list relate to the fantastic.

Word List gauge novel revive
dumbfounded illuminate remote unsound
ford jut
frugal

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. EXERCISE A Definition Clues
Each example below contains a clue about the meaning of the boldfaced word. Use the clue to guess
the word’s likely meaning. Then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its meaning.

1. novel : making a dress out of newspaper
Dictionary definition

2. remote : a cabin on a lonely mountain in Alaska
Dictionary definition

3. ford : ride a horse across a stream at a shallow place
Dictionary definition

4. illuminate : explain the style of a painting
Dictionary definition

5. gauge : measure yesterday’s rainfall at 1.5 inches
Dictionary definition

6. unsound : a floor that is rotten and has many holes
Dictionary definition

7. jut : what a protruding cliff on a mountain face might do
Dictionary definition

8. dumbfounded : response to unbelievable news
Dictionary definition

Vocabulary Power Unit 4, Lesson 16 37

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

continued

9. frugal : person who spends money only on necessary items
Dictionary definition

10. revive : bring back a midnight movie series
Dictionary definition

EXERCISE B Multiple-Meaning Words
Many words in English have more than one meaning. Each meaning, however, is based on the
meaning of the word root. The word remote, for example, is from the Latin remotus, past
participle of removere, meaning “to remove.” A dictionary entry for remote lists many different
meanings, all of which are related to the root meaning, “to remove.” Use a dictionary to help you
write the precise definition of remote as it is used in each sentence below.

1. King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table are legendary figures from the remote past.
Dictionary definition

2. We encountered the recluse in a remote cabin in the hills.
Dictionary definition

3. Remote sensing equipment enables police in helicopters to spot fugitives on the run.
Dictionary definition

4. An acorn is cupped in a hardened structure remote from the nut.
Dictionary definition

5. Jason realized that he had only a remote possibility of winning the track meet.
Dictionary definition

6. The evening-news producers inserted a remote from the hurricane area.
Dictionary definition

7. We found the long-lost television remote control under the sofa cushions.
Dictionary definition

38 Unit 4, Lesson 16 Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

Lesson 17 Prefixes That Tell When

A prefix is a word part attached at the beginning of a word or root. The prefix re-, for example, means

“again” or “back”; pre- means “before” or “in front of.” Adding a prefix to a word or root modifies its

meaning. For instance, the word re-create means “create again,” and the word pretreat means “treat

before.” Recognizing these two prefixes that tell when can often help you figure out a word’s meaning.

Word List premeditated recur regenerate
precaution reconstruct refurbish reintegrate
precondition recount
prefix

EXERCISE A Prefixes
Use the meaning of the prefix and the information given about the base word or root to supply a
possible meaning for each word. Then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its definition.

1. The root count means “relate.” Recount might mean

Dictionary definition
2. A condition is a state of being. Precondition might mean

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Dictionary definition
3. Construct means “build.” Reconstruct might mean

Dictionary definition
4. Meditate means “ponder” or “plan.” Premeditated might mean

Dictionary definition
5. Fix means “stabilize” or “appoint.” Prefix might mean

Dictionary definition

Vocabulary Power Unit 4, Lesson 17 39

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝

continued

6. Furbish means “clean” or “polish.” Refurbish might mean

Dictionary definition
7. Integrate means “unite.” Reintegrate might mean

Dictionary definition
8. Caution comes from the Latin infinitive cavere, meaning “to be on guard.” Precaution might mean

Dictionary definition
9. Generate means “produce.” Regenerate might mean

Dictionary definition
10. The root cur comes from the Latin word for “run.” Recur might mean

Dictionary definition Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

EXERCISE B Usage
Complete each sentence with the correct vocabulary word.

1. Warm, sunny weather is a ________________ for hanging clothes outdoors to dry.
2. The starfish had to ________________ a leg after the eel grabbed it.
3. The punishment for a ________________ crime is usually harsher than for an unplanned crime.
4. This problem will ________________ if we don’t come up with a solution now.
5. Jason helped Mr. Corelli ________________ his old car; now it’s as good as new.
6. Max asked Ashley to ________________ what happened in the third act of the play.
7. Yolanda wears a helmet, knee pads, and elbow pads as a ________________ when she

goes rollerblading.
8. After six months apart, Anita and Stan had to ________________ their lives.
9. The editor had to ________________ news assignments before the holiday.
10. Volunteers will help ________________ the Smiths’ barn, which was destroyed by a fire.

40 Unit 4, Lesson 17 Vocabulary Power

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝e
e
Lesson 18 Using Reading Skills
e
Learning from Context: Definitions
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Have you ever wondered where certain words come from? Most dictionary entries include a brief note
about the word’s origin, or beginning. The note usually appears in square brackets, often toward the
beginning of the entry. Several examples follow:

bovine (bo–´v-in) adj. [from Latin bov-, bos ox, cow] 1. of, relating to, or resembling bovines and especially the ox
or cow 2. having qualities (as placidity or dullness) characteristic of oxen or cows
czar (zär) n. [from Russian tsar’, from Latin Caesar] 1. emperor, specifically the ruler of Russia until the 1917
revolution 2. one having great power or authority
mecca (mek´ ) n. often cap. [Mecca, Saudi Arabia, a destination of pilgrims in the Islamic world] a center of
activity sought as a goal by people sharing a common interest
mesmerize (mez´ m r-iz´, mes´-) v. [from Franz Mesmer, 1734–1815, an Austrian doctor who treated disease
using a form of hypnotism] 1. to subject to mesmerism, also to hypnotize 2. spellbind
odyssey (od´ s–e) n. [from the Odyssey, the epic poem attributed to Homer recounting the long wanderings of
Odysseus] 1. a long wandering or voyage usually marked by many changes of fortune 2. an intellectual or
spiritual wandering or quest

EXERCISE
Use the sample entries above to answer each question about word origins.

1. Which word comes from the name of a Greek hero? What happened to this hero?

2. What is the Russian spelling of czar? From what older word and language does the Russian word come?

3. What is the origin of the word mesmerize? How does the meaning of this word relate to the word origin?

4. Which word comes from the name of a place? Describe this place.

5. How is a bovine person like a cow?

Vocabulary Power Unit 4, Lesson 18 41

Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Review: Unit 4

EXERCISE
Circle the word that best completes each sentence.

1. The landlord is planning to (relocate, recount, refurbish) several run-down apartment
buildings on K Street.

2. Buyers at a flea market often try to (recount, haggle, gauge) with the sellers to get the best price.
3. The two countries had a(n) (obstruction, precondition, pact) to aid each other if an enemy invaded.
4. Fran decided on a(n) (novel, remote, invincible) costume for the party—she plans to come as a gas pump.
5. If you ask for a refund at that store, the owners will always (comply, imply, ford) with your request.
6. This chart will help to (illuminate, revive, reconstruct) the complex plan.
7. This chairperson had to (jut, reintegrate, imply) the members after the party lost the election.
8. The scientists’ task is to (gauge, imply, revive) the amount of oxygen in the icy water near the

South Pole.
9. Fran decided to take her dog on a(n) (rogue, frugal, invigorating) walk in the snow.
10. Building blocks are great—I can (reintegrate, reconstruct, ford) any building I have seen.
11. The lawyer argued that since the suspect had written his plan for the crime in a letter, the act was

(invincible, premeditated, remote).
12. The other teams thought the Bulls were (invincible, novel, reckless) after three undefeated seasons.
13. Some animals can actually (recount, reintegrate, regenerate) their tails or digits if they lose them!
14. Please (refurbish, recount, revive) for us what you did on your vacation.
15. Darla always has money in her savings account because of her (frugal, novel, remote) shopping habits.

42 Unit 4 Review Vocabulary Power


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I replied in a calm tone. - Perhaps there will be an end. I am interested in how it happened. And you will not start to scandal and rush at Misha.

Power key lesson answer 15 vocabulary unit 4

With his hands. Semyon Mikhailovich groaned and, finding a fulcrum, leaned against the back of the chair. It was later that Zhenya realized that he had done everything himself, without coercion. But at this moment completely different thoughts visited him. His fingers fiddled with his uncle's swollen testicles.

How to Remember what you study? - How to Increase your Memory Power? - Study Tips - Letstute

After that, I took a comb and slapped him on the ass for a long, long time. The comb did not leave any red streaks, only pink spots, and I loved it. After the execution, he cleaned the apartment with weights on the papillae and a mop in. The ass. It touched me, and I fucked him with a purchased artificial member in the ass.

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Stomach became like In the last month of pregnancy, I began to ask for a toilet, I was ignored. After finishing with an enema, I put it aside and took a long hose fixed to the mixer and at the other end - a rosette with a. Regulator from a round stream to a kind of shower.

And in Laura, whose neck was already covered with kisses by half-drunk Chris, would teach him how to dance his brother.



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