Shift body type quiz

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Body Type Diet The Ultimate Guide

If you’ve been eating well and exercising, you may not be getting the results you’re looking for. “Many people are exercising for the first time ever and eating cleaner than ever, but they’re still doing the wrong thing for their body,” says Phil Catudal, celebrity trainer and coauthor of Just Your Type: The Ultimate Guide to Eating and Training Right for Your Body Type with health journalist Stacey Colino.

The idea that everyone has a body type comes from William Herbert Sheldon, MD, PhD, the late psychologist who developed what are called “somatotypes” in the s. (1) “He was trying to explain personality types based on one’s physiological structure,” says Catudal. Problem is, linking personality traits with body type gets problematic (and drowns in bias and stigma) quickly. “He stumbled upon something great with body types, but the personality stuff is a disconnect,” he says.

When it comes to your body, Catudal says there are common elements among body types that suggests how much muscle or fat you tend to have, as well as how fast or slow your metabolism may be, and thus how easy or difficult it may be for you to lose weight.

Yet there isn’t a ton of research on how a person’s somatotype might better inform their diet and exercise habits. There is, however, a little on body composition differences. One small, past study in the American Journal of Human Biology looked at 63 men ages 18 to They found that those whose bodies were long and lean indeed had less body fat, weighed less, and had less lean body mass compared with those with curvy or hourglass figures. (2)

A more recent paper, published in October in Anthropological Review by Polish researchers, analyzed three-day food diaries of nearly women over age They concluded that somatotype was related to factors like dieting, physical activity, weight cycling, body mass index (BMI), and even disease status. Those with curvy figures had greater diastolic blood pressure compared with lean and lanky participants, as well as those who had an hourglass figure. Women who were lean and lanky were also more likely to be underweight. Interestingly, when researchers looked at their dietary intake, curvy individuals consumed more protein and those who were lean consumed the least. (3)

But Catudal says that finding your dominant body type (because you can be a mix of two) can help guide you toward healthy habits that will work best for your body and help you form more realistic goals. “If you’re doing the same thing as someone else who doesn’t have your same body structure, you won’t get the same results. It helps to realign your expectations with what is possible for you,” he says.


[Following is an official review of &#;End Dieting Hell&#; by Michelle Melendez.]
28 Aug , by Raikyuu
4 out of 4 stars

End Dieting Hell is a self-help book that provides a new perspective on losing weight. The book talks about how a person can be “emotionally addicted” to the feeling of struggling with losing weight. The goal of the book is to help people find peace with one’s own body. Based on her experiences as a fitness instructor, Michelle Melendez imparts her advice on loving oneself to bring about the change the person needs.

The book starts with the author’s story, which details her insecurities when she was 13 years old and shows how she started to appreciate her own body. The book focuses on how behavioral memory patterns affect the way people think of themselves, including their self-image. The book also talks about the relationship between the cells and the emotions, the concept of “emotional body,” and the right routine for one’s body type. The book contains insights about finding peace with one’s own body, as well as knowing the purpose of one’s lifetime struggle with weight.

The book aims to merge biology, nutrition, sports science, and new age beliefs to provide an answer to the everlasting problem of losing weight. This mixture of concepts is explained through the author’s use of multiple stories, which I find entertaining and relatable. The stories about her experiences with clients are inspirational to read. Since the book is well-written and professionally edited, the book easily achieves its goal of aiding people to accept who they are, helping them find peace within themselves.

My only problem with the book is that the author misunderstood a scientific paper, which she uses to state that the heart “has a brain of its own.” The paper looked into how “intuition” is being handled by the human body. While the paper does say that the heart also plays a role in handling “intuition,” the conclusion of the paper says that “intuition” is not handled by a discrete organ (brain or heart alone), but rather by the whole body: a system-wide process.

Nevertheless, I don’t believe that the aforementioned misunderstanding gets in the way of the self-help aspect of the book. Overall, End Dieting Hell is a fascinating and helpful read for people who are trying to lose weight. I rate this book 4 out of 4 stars. While it’s hard to recommend this book to those who don’t believe in new age beliefs, I can recommend this book to those who are having trouble losing weight.

Review link:;t=

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Erin Holland reveals her approach to health and fitness as she launches her new training app

Australian model, singer and presenter Erin Holland is celebrating the launch of her new health and fitness app, Shift with Erin. 

The year-old told Daily Mail Australia this week that it took almost two years to develop the app, which centres on personalised training and goals for each user. 

Erin told Daily Mail Australia about her own approach to health and fitness and said that while she can't give our specific tips and tricks because everyone is different, she eats clean, exercises almost daily but will always indulge her sweet tooth. 

EXCLUSIVE: Australian model, singer and presenter Erin Holland (pictured) is celebrating the launch of her new health and fitness app, Shift with Erin

EXCLUSIVE: Australian model, singer and presenter Erin Holland (pictured) is celebrating the launch of her new health and fitness app, Shift with Erin

Erin said that if she's got a busy day ahead, she will skip the gym and focus on resting. 

'For me, I keep alcohol to a bare minimum, exercise everyday I am physically able to,' she said. 

'But if I have a massive day, I'm not going to get up at 3am to get up and exercise,' she said. 

Her approach: Erin told Daily Mail Australia about her own approach to health and fitness and said that while she can't give our specific tips and tricks because everyone is different, she eats clean, exercises almost daily but will always indulge her sweet tooth

Her approach: Erin told Daily Mail Australia about her own approach to health and fitness and said that while she can't give our specific tips and tricks because everyone is different, she eats clean, exercises almost daily but will always indulge her sweet tooth

'I try and make good and healthy choices based on what my metabolism is like. But hey, if I feel like chocolate, I'm going to eat it.'

She added: 'I know what happens if I restrict myself from the chocolate, I'll eat like three blocks!'

Erin said that sugar is her vice and said that she always keeps a packet of red frogs in her handbag for a sugar hit.   

'I have the sweetest tooth in the world,' she said. 

'Sugar is my vice per cent. I always have a bag of red frogs in my bag. But rather than depriving myself, [for example] it was Easter, I had some Easter eggs.'

She's got a sweet tooth: Erin said that sugar is her vice and said that she always keeps a packet of red frogs in her handbag for a sugar hit

She's got a sweet tooth: Erin said that sugar is her vice and said that she always keeps a packet of red frogs in her handbag for a sugar hit

'I try and make good and healthy choices based on what my metabolism is like. But hey, if I feel like chocolate, I'm going to eat it,' she said

'I try and make good and healthy choices based on what my metabolism is like. But hey, if I feel like chocolate, I'm going to eat it,' she said


-Users can subscribe to the app for approximately $40 per month, or $10 per week 

- Erin's new 'healthy lifestyle' app is personalised to each user, with users taking a quiz to help determine their body type and health and fitness goals

- With the help of experts, the app features unique recipes, grocery lists and workouts that change every week 


She added: 'I had Thai the other night you can always make good choices wherever you go and shouldn't deprive yourself of anything.'

Erin's new 'healthy lifestyle' app is personalised to each user, with users taking a quiz to help determine their body type and health and fitness goals.

With the help of experts, the app features unique recipes, grocery lists and workouts that change every week. 

Users can subscribe to the app for approximately $40 per month, or $10 per week.  

'I went to college at Sydney University with one of the app developers,' Erin said. 

'They came up with this concept I agree with. One size doesn't fit all with health and fitness, it's impossible, we're all different body types this focusses on understanding what somebody's metabolic makeup is,' she said.

'Some people can eat anything and not put on weight, there's people who can look at a carb and blow out, others who love Keto everyone is so different.'

She added: 'I've learned over the years, diets down work, restricting yourself doesn't work.'

She said the app contains all the information anyone will need on their health and fitness journey. 

'Because I'm not a qualified health or nutrition expert, I wasn't comfortable giving people advice because it may not work for you at home. So now, having a resource I can direct people to instead which will be more beneficial for them is a much better way to do it.'

'I wasn't comfortable giving people advice but now I have a resource': She said the app contains all the information anyone will need on their health and fitness journey

'I wasn't comfortable giving people advice but now I have a resource': She said the app contains all the information anyone will need on their health and fitness journey

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Shift Online Personal Training Review Rating: 4 / 5 (Very good)

9 Customer Comments & Reviews - see all comments

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Shift is a fitness app promoted by Australian model Erin Holland and operated by Futurhealth, LLC. The app is available for Android and Apple devices and provides personalized diet and exercise routines based on the answers users provide to an initial questionnaire.

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Type shift quiz body

Lose weight: Body-type quiz that will help you drop kilos

FEEL as if you’re doing all the right things to be healthy and lose weight but it just doesn’t seem to work? Well, perhaps you’re not doing the right things for you. Personalised medicine is the future of health, and this exclusive quiz will keep you ahead of the curve.

The quiz is the brainchild of Adelaide-born health scientist Matt Riemann, who was diagnosed 11 years ago with a rare genetic neurological disease.

After being told there was little current medicine could do, he began looking into epigenetics, the study of how lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and stress impact our genes.

The research didn’t just turn around his own health, it led to the development of the ph program (phme).

Launched in in collaboration with scientists at universities around the world, including the University of Queensland and Stanford in the US, the program aims to improve participant’s health, weight, energy and fitness levels through epigenetic analysis.

“Your body contains 25, different genes that influence how it behaves for example, how much muscle you gain, how much fat you store and the make-up and efficiency of your digestive system,” Riemann explains.

“But only a certain number of genes are active at any given time. This test identifies which foods, exercise and other lifestyle behaviours will help you switch on the helpful genes that take you towards your goal, and switch off the bad genes that don’t.”

The quiz pinpoints which of six main health types you are. Each one requires a different approach to diet and exercise to achieve optimal results and the most enjoyment from making a change. Read on to discover which health type you are.



As your name suggests, you’re the most naturally active of the health types. You rarely sit still, you love change and you do things quickly. A natural athlete with a fast metabolism, you respond well to exercise. You gain muscle mass quickly and if you stick to a healthy eating plan you also lose weight quickly. Your mood and energy is very much impacted by your environment — if you’re tired or craving comfort food, changing your surroundings will revitalise you.

Exercise tips

Add regular movement throughout your day — for example, take a lunchtime class then walk part of the way home in the evening. “The type of muscle fibres you have mean your body responds well to sudden, short bursts of activity. You’re more of a sprinter than a marathon runner,” says Reimann, adding that interval training appeals to your need for novelty. Try doing a morning interval session several days a week.

You like a challenge, so team sports or games such as tennis will spur you on.

Diet tips

“Your faster metabolism creates more oxidative stress in the system than other health types, so you need lots of antioxidants,” Reimann explains.

Consume daily servings of superfoods such as acai berries and green tea.

Higher levels of protein are also essential for you, particularly after intense exercise. Aim for at least one portion of animal protein every day and add plant-based proteins such as tofu and beans to other meals. Most of your plate should be filled with protein, then carbs/vegies and minimal fats.

Your liver and gallbladder can be weak, and higher intakes of saturated fats can stress them. Get healthy fats from avocado, nuts and seeds instead


Guardians are oval in shape, with big bones. You find it hard to lose weight, and any muscle you do build can often be hidden by fat. The good news is you’re consistent and enjoy routine, so once you adopt healthy habits you’re likely to stick to them. You do, however, tend to put others first and your health needs can easily be sidelined — so the most important health change you can make is to put yourself first.

Exercise tips

You have large bones and muscles that make you a natural at weightlifting. Make strength training your main workout, aiming for three to five sessions a week.

You don’t enjoy being hot, so choose a naturally cooling exercise such as swimming, or join an air-conditioned gym.

Push yourself. “Your natural inclination is to conserve energy for later,” Reimann says. “You’ll need to push yourself beyond your comfort zone, though, if

you really want to see results.”

Diet tips

Minimal added sugar is essential for you.

“The Guardian’s shorter, oval-shaped body type is strongly associated with the development of diabetes. Your pancreas is your weakest organ and sugar stresses it,” adds Reimann.

Limit your fruit intake, too, with no more than three pieces a week. Snack on vegies instead.




You thrive on a heavily plant-based diet, but many Guardians struggle with initial hunger pangs.

“Give it a chance — the feeling will pass, your cravings will diminish, and you’ll start to feel satisfied with less,” Reimann says. Ideally, aim to fill your plate with mostly vegetables, a little protein, some healthy fats and minimal carbs.

Excess kilojoules go straight to your middle section. Eat three small meals spaced evenly throughout the day, and avoid snacks.


Crusaders have naturally athletic-looking bodies, and your high thyroid function means you lose weight easily but may have difficulty building muscle.

You’re very determined, though, so hard work doesn’t faze you. You do well with routine, so setting a structure to your diet and workouts is a good idea.

Exercise increases the levels of the ‘happy hormone’ dopamine in your brain, so once you do get into a workout routine you thoroughly enjoy it.

Exercise tips

Rhythmic exercise helps you relax and fight stress. Running, swimming, cycling and hiking are the best exercises for you — aim for four to five sessions a week.

Since you’re motivated by success and reward, track your progress so you can see how you’re improving.

You thrive in fresh air, so combining your workout with time spent outside will create an extra health and energy boost.

Find an outdoor pool, or run in the park.

Diet tips

Low acid levels in your digestive system mean your body can have trouble breaking down proteins. Avoid raw fish and, when you eat meat, have it cooked medium-well to well done.

Eat small meals throughout the day.

Try for breakfast at about 7am, a snack at 11am, lunch at 1pm, a snack at 3pm, and dinner at 6pm — this gives your digestive system time to reset overnight.

Fill your plate with easy-to-digest carbs and vegies and fewer protein and fats to avoid overstressing your system.

Avoid alcohol and excess sugar as they tend to make this type feel “less energetic and happy”, Reimann says.


Your genetic make-up is made to survive tough circumstances but this also means your body can store excess kilojoules, making it easier to accumulate fat.

Diplomats find it difficult to lose weight, and to achieve success you need to have a true desire to make a change.

Really look at your motivation for improving your diet and exercise habits. Find your ‘why’ and remind yourself of it if you waver to help you stay focused and disciplined.

Exercise tips

Lifting weights comes easily and you can achieve great strength and muscle definition. Strength training should make up at least 75 per cent of your sessions.

You have a high pain threshold, so when you do feel pain you tend to avoid the cause, slowing down your results. Don’t use pain as an excuse to skip your workouts.

Exercise three to five times a week. Regular workouts stimulate the lymph system, which processes fluid in the body. Yours can be sluggish, so regular movement will reduce your risk of fluid retention and painful joints.

Diet tips

Fill your plate with mostly vegetables and stick to moderate intakes of animal proteins and grains.

Your body takes the longest of the types to digest foods, and meat can build up in your digestive system, leading to fermentation and bloating.

Eat three main meals over a hour period. Avoid eating after 10pm to allow a long gap overnight for better digestion.

Avoid processed sugar and limit fruit to two pieces a day.

Emotional and pleasure eating can easily send you off track. Stick to activities and rewards unrelated to food.


Naturally lean, you have a fast metabolism, so any weight you gain comes off easily. You have an active mind and often forget to eat, or just grab what’s near.

“Your lean middle has a short digestive tract which can make your digestion sluggish,” Reimann warns.

Exercise tips

“Your frame isn’t designed to lift large amounts of weight above your head. Keep weights light and do more repetitions instead,” Reimann says.

As well as weights, choose exercises that engage your mind such as Pilates and yoga. Three to five workouts a week will give you the best results.

You prefer dim lighting, and minimal noise and distractions, so pick a workout space that reflects this.

Diet tips

Plan meals to avoid convenience foods. Eat vegies, grains, moderate fats and lower levels of protein.

Drink a glass of enzyme-rich pineapple juice before your meals to aid digestion.

Healthy fats are important for you.

“You can have a low hormone output so fats will help your natural production of steroid hormones,” Reimann says.

Eat plenty of nuts, seeds, avocado, olive oil and oily fish.


You have a strong and sturdy body and you’re generally energetic. Your body loses weight very slowly, says Reimann, adding to “expect to spend at least three months on a plan before you see results”. The warmer months are the best time to make a change for you since sunlight increases your energy and motivation.

Exercise tips

Find an exercise buddy. You love being with others so you’re more likely to succeed this way.

Focus on immediate benefits, such as better sleep and brain function, to stay motivated.

Work out five times a week, mixing weights and cardio equally. Bootcamps or circuit classes provide the intensity and social aspect you need.

Diet tips

Your energy levels can be low in the morning, which can see you turning to too many coffees or sugary snacks. “Choose a breakfast like oats to create sustained energy,” Reimann suggests.

You need a balanced diet that includes a little protein, lots of veg, a few grains and healthy fats.

Spend more time with health-conscious people. “Bad influences will lead you astray, so connect with people who are a positive influence on your goals,” Reimann adds.

* This is a sample of the advice given by the ph program. For a personalised diet and lifestyle plan that considers your age, gender, family history and medical circumstances, visit phme

BUILD A BOYFRIEND // find your ideal type quiz (aesthetic)

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SHIFT was created with the goal of supporting EVERYONE with all body types and shapes to hit their goals in health and fitness. Nutrition and fitness is not a one-time thing and takes a real SHIFT of perception, habits, and life to stay on track.

Erin Holland (Australian Miss world model, singer, TV Host, dancer and charity worker) created the SHIFT app as a way to empower and motivate other women to hit their goals and live their best life. Not everyone has access to the same tools models, actresses and celebrities do until today. SHIFT is available through the app store and delivers step-by-step, customized programs to hit your goals. The program caters to all abilities, preferences and lifestyles and to Erin is there every step of the way to guide you through your day to day!

SHIFT is an online platform to guide, motivate and inspire women through the many facets of fitness and health and get to the best you! SHIFT app features, everything you need from at home workouts (optional), healthy recipes with exact portions, along with forums and amazing content to educate you along the way.
SHIFT Your LIFE Today with Erin

We use HealthKit to help better understand your calories burnt.

Terms of Use:


- Spotify integrate
- Various bug fixes

Ratings and Reviews

Shift app function

Overall this program has been working pretty well. That app is very easy to use and has just about everything you need; work outs meal plans, grocery lists and a few other tracking features to help keep you moving. The one thing I would change would be to allow you to see a weeks worth of set meals instead of just the meals for the day. This would help a lot of people be able to plan a head, for example; make your lunch the night before to take to work, or prep for breakfast if you are in a hurry. That would make the app so much more convenient and desirable to use.


I am fairly active. I am being modest when I say that. With the pandemic this last year that really messed with my sports leagues and gym time. I kept gaining weight. I had a terrible diet. I haven’t worked out for about a month and a half since I was feeling a little defeated. Within the first week of shift’s meal plan I lost 5 lbs, immediately. I am a believer. The app is super easy to use. You can see your meals for the week ahead of time, shop an in app shopping list, make changes & prep is easy! They do all of the work for you minus the shopping and prep. It’s all ingredients that are easy to find at your local grocery store. You just need to know where to look! No more counting macros. When you swap out a meal it automatically edits the macros by “shifting” the ingredient amounts. The shopping list is on point, too. Give it a try!

So far so good

I really like this app and program. The app is very easy to use. I can log my meals from Swift I can log my water and I can add food that I eat that’s not on the swift plan. If you click on the calendar you can see your meals for the week and then adjust your grocery list or change anything you don’t like!! I’m hoping to get some feedback from someone soon this is only my first two weeks. So so far is easy to stick to. Oh yeah the exercises there more challenging than you think and you feel pride whenever you get through it without getting short of breath on the second go around LOL

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Similar news:

Do you have trouble losing body fat, yet seem to gain it after even the smallest slip up with your diet? Or does it feel like you can eat for days without gaining an ounce? It could have something to do with your current body type. But is it really that simple? 

Let's explore them more in depth and analyze how they relate to overall body composition. 
Table of Contents:

You can also find more information about this topic (and many others like it) within our online nutrition classes.

What is Body Type?

Body type, or somatotype, refers to the idea that there are three generalized body compositions that people are predetermined to have. The concept was theorized by Dr. W.H. Sheldon back in the early s, naming the three somatotypes endomorph, mesomorph, and ectomorph.

It was originally believed that a person’s somatotype was unchangeable, and that certain physiological and psychological characteristics were even determined by whichever one a person aligns to.

According to Sheldon, endomorphs have bodies that are always rounded and soft, mesomorphs are always square and muscular, and ectomorphs are always thin and fine-boned.

He theorized that these body types directly influenced a person’s personality, and the names were chosen because he believed the predominate traits of each somatotype were set in stone, derived from pre-birth preferential development of either the endodermal, mesodermal, or ectodermal embryonic layers.

Somatotype Theory, Debunked

Let’s take a deeper look at how he classified each one:


  • Relative predominance of soft roundness throughout various regions of the body.
  • Digestive viscera are more massive and relatively dominate bodily economy.
  •  Have a more relaxed, comfortable, and extroverted personality.


  • Relative predominance of muscle, bone, and connective tissue that dominates bodily economy.
  • Heavy, hard, and rectangular in outline.
  • Have a more active, dynamic, assertive, and aggressive personality.


  • Relative predominance of linearity and fragility
  • Greatest skin surface area relative to body mass causes greater sensory exposure
  • Have a more introverted, thoughtful, inhibited, and sensitive personality.

Some notions of Sheldon’s theory have held up over time, providing the foundation for more accepted applications of somatotyping, but much of it has not.

The theory that personality is determined by body composition has been wholly abandoned by the psychological community. Additionally, we know that no one is hopelessly predetermined to either be fat, muscular, or thin as a lifelong consequence of prenatal development.

What makes our bodies what they are is an absolutely vast array of environmental and social influences, genetic variations, geographic locations, and personal decisions across the entire lifespan.

The Body Type Spectrum

So then why are we even discussing this topic? Because while the notion of a predetermined body composition looks far-fetched through a 21st century lens, many of the physiological markers and observations associated with each somatotype do actually exist in the greater population.

However, the modern understanding is flipped from Sheldon’s original concept; it’s our physiological characteristics that determine the current somatotype, not the somatotype that determines our collective physiologies.

No one exists within purely one somatotype; instead, we are all constantly in flux and fall uniquely on a spectrum somewhere between all three.

Your Body Type is Not a Life Sentence

As they are understood and accepted today, body types reflect a generalized picture of how a person’s physiology is functioning in their current state. The observable somatotype represents the current sum of their physical, dietary, and lifestyle choices up to that point in time, combined with a variety of uncontrollable factors influenced by both genetics and the surrounding environment.

For example, at one extreme end of the spectrum, a person who has easy access to high-quality food, makes habitually healthy diet choices, is free of chronic disease, and consistently trains at progressively higher intensities will always have a more functional, muscular, and leaner body composition. On the flip side, someone who always sits all day and eats a lots of excess calories from junk food will undoubtedly develop the “soft roundness” stated in Sheldon’s original classification of endomorphs.

But remember, a body type is not a life sentence. If it were, personal trainers, health coaches, and nutrition coaches would all be out of jobs. The fitness industry, at its core, is all about helping people learn to use tools they can control (i.e., improved lifestyle, diet, and exercise techniques) to overcome challenges presented by genetic and environmental factors that they otherwise have no agency over.

Body Type Spectrum Chart

Body type will shift based on lifestyle, activity, and diet modifications . Someone on the DASH diet will have a different composition than someone who doesn't have a diet preference. 

This notion is made clear when looking at average physiques of elite athletes in different sports, where consistent training and diet standards lead to similar average body compositions grouped across the somatotype spectrum.

Just to reiterate, a body type is not a life sentence. Just like a body mass index range isn't a clearcut indication that someone is obese or underweight. There are many metrics at work. 

How to Improve Your Body Composition

Research continues to prove that physical training and consistent, habitual changes to the diet have a strong influence on improving body composition. Metabolic conditions such as hyper- or hypothyroidism are fully within the realm of modern medicine to manage and improve, and chronic conditions like type 2 diabetes are manageable and can even be remedied in many cases through improvements to diet and exercise routines. Simply type “[exercise/diet] impact on body composition” into your favorite search engine and quickly become overwhelmed with the breadth of research spanning the last century.

The human body is highly adaptable and always seeks homeostasis (i.e., equilibrium) within its environment. But it can take a while to break old patterns that the body has gotten used to. This fact – that change takes time and consistency – is more than likely what leads many people to resign to the notion that they are stuck in a somatotype; because change is hard, and it’s often far easier and convenient to chalk one’s body dissatisfaction up to forces beyond direct control. But this is also where Certified Personal Trainers and Nutrition Coaches have the most opportunity to build long-lasting relationships with clients.

Muscle is healthily gained at around one pound per month, and fat healthily lost at around one pound per week. After a desirable body composition has been attained through lifestyle modification, physical training, and healthy changes to diet – and, more importantly, when those new habits are adopted and maintained permanently – the new body that is symptomatic of all those changes will eventually become the “new normal.”

Metabolisms and appetites adjust to new energy intakes, physical activity becomes a natural part of the day instead of a chore, and someone who was predominately ectomorphic or endomorphic will eventually see themselves displaying far more mesomorphic traits over time.

How to Identify Body Type

In light of all this, understanding a client’s current-state body type is quite beneficial for fitness professionals. A simple observation of body composition can help quickly identify various physiological situations a client might be dealing with and allow you to tailor solutions that will preferentially address each one. Use the following somatotype traits to determine which one a person primarily aligns to:


  • Stockier bone structures with larger midsection and hips.
  •  Carries more fat throughout the body.
  • Gains fat fast and loses it slow.
  • Naturally slow metabolism; potentially due to chronic conditions (e.g., thyroid deficiency, diabetes) but too frequently the result of a sedentary lifestyle and chronically-positive daily energy balance.


  • Medium bone structure with shoulders wider than the hips.
  • Developed athletic musculature.
  • Efficient metabolism; mass gain and loss both happen with relative ease.


  • More narrow shoulders and hips in respect to height.
  • Relatively smaller muscles in respect to bone length.
  • Naturally fast metabolism makes it difficult for many to gain mass.
  • Potentially indicative of disordered eating (e.g., anorexia, bulimia) when BMI is ≤
Bone structure of ectomorph, mesomorph and endomorph body types.

Once you identify which somatotype a client most aligns to, consider the structural and metabolic challenges that are associated with it. Then, tailor the exercise programming and dietary coaching to overcome those hurdles. This will preferentially develop the necessary foundation that each client individually requires.

For the typical new client, the initial, overarching goal to “get in shape” will essentially boil down to a desire to shift their current-state body type toward a more mesomorphic physiology.

Obviously, there will be exceptions to this rule – there will always be endomorphs who want to get even bigger to compete in strongman events and ectomorphs who want to keep thin and trim for running ultramarathons – but it rings true for the majority of clients seeking the help of a Certified Personal Trainer or Nutrition Coach.

In light of that average goal, for example, a client who presents predominately as an ectomorph will most likely need dietary and training solutions that focus on muscle protein synthesis and overall mass gain, while typical endomorphic clients will benefit far more from frequent metabolic training and reduced calorie intakes. So, take a look at each individual, critically evaluate whether you are using the right methods for the body type they currently display, and use the following tips to better tailor your programs for maximal success.

How to Train Endomorphs

Training endomorphs should predominantly focus on fat loss techniques until a desirable body composition and functional cardiorespiratory efficiency have been achieved. Resistance training should be used to strengthen muscles and stabilize joints to support more-efficient movement elsewhere in life, but this population tends to need cardiorespiratory improvement and fat loss above all.

In the gym, work through OPT Phase 1 and Phase 2, but keep the majority of training sessions focused on metabolic conditioning. Use short rest periods, circuits for resistance exercises, lots of plyometrics (within client tolerance), and use as much additional time as possible for steady-state cardio.

Consistent anaerobic and aerobic training will help endomorphic bodies increase their metabolic efficiency and boost the body’s daily energy requirement. Additionally, recommend that primarily-endomorphic clients increase their non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) factor as much as possible, moving more during times of the day when they’re not in the gym. Commitment to a less-sedentary lifestyle overall is the most important thing for this population to begin overcoming their metabolic challenges.

Due to those slower metabolisms (regardless of the underlying cause) and a surplus of stored energy (body fat), nutritional solutions for primarily-endomorphic individuals should focus on techniques to maximize fat loss while still supporting, and even building, the existing lean muscle mass. To accomplish this, a diet that is both low-calorie and high in protein is ideal. Diets containing daily protein of as much as grams per kilogram body weight (and sometimes even higher) have been shown safe and effective for supporting existing muscle tissue during times of calorie restriction and weight loss.

After ensuring that daily protein requirements have been met, the remaining pool of calories can come from whatever blend of carbs and fats the individual best tolerates. Some may tolerate a very low-carb “ketogenic” diet that helps them preferentially burn even more fat throughout the day, while others will experience hypoglycemia and its associated nauseating symptoms without enough carbohydrates in their diet.

This rings especially true during workouts, where carbs are important to fuel the higher intensities needed for cardiorespiratory improvement. But regardless of whether carbs or fats are the preferred source of energy, the most important thing is to determine the client’s total daily calorie requirement and keep food intake a bit lower (with still-ample protein) so that the body remains in a negative energy balance with as little muscle catabolism as possible.


  • Maximize calorie burn and the improvement of metabolic efficiency by primarily using high-intensity, metabolic training techniques.
  • Consume a high-protein diet with balanced carbs and fats that maintains a slight negative energy balance.

If you are an Ectomorph and want to gain muscle, check your nutrition. Here are some great recipes for gaining muscle to help you hit your goals. 

How to Train Ectomorphs

Ectomorphs face the opposite set of challenges as primarily-endomorphic individuals. Due to the numerous factors previously mentioned, most ectomorphic clients have developed bodies with highly active metabolisms and “lanky” bone structures, making it hard for them to put on mass and keep it on. For this reason, exercise techniques for hypertrophy and maximal strength should be prioritized, with a greatly-reduced focus on cardiorespiratory training to reduce overall energy utilization.

After working through the initial level of the OPT model, Phases 3 and 4 will be of most benefit to average clients in this population. Hypertrophy and maximal strength resistance training are primarily anaerobic in nature and, when combined with longer rest periods, won’t stimulate elevated calorie burn in the moment like more-intense, fast-paced exercise programs will. When paired with a consistently-positive energy balance, this type of lifting will preferentially help ectomorphs build up their body mass.

To accompany the mass gain-focused resistance training, ectomorphic bodies should eat a mass gain-focused diet. These individuals tend to burn through energy sources faster than most, so ample calories will be needed. Low-carb, fat-loss focused diets are not recommended here, and in some cases, it may be prudent to recommend that ectomorphic clients even incorporate “mass gainer” nutritional shakes into their diets.

And just like with endomorphic bodies that are working to become more mesomorphic, ectomorphs need high levels of protein too. to grams per kilogram body weight of daily protein has been shown to be optimal for muscle growth, with some individuals requiring up to

That protein should then be spaced out every three hours so that muscle protein synthesis (MPS) signals (from the amino acid leucine) are maximized all day long. An additional protein shake at night, right before bed to minimize the fasting window, can also be beneficial for maximizing MPS in individuals with difficulty gaining weight.


  • Maximize muscle gain using lower-intensity hypertrophy and maximal strength resistance training with longer rest periods.
  • Consume a high-protein diet with balanced carbs and fats that maintains a positive energy balance.

How to Train Mesomorphs

There’s no avoiding the fact that mesomorphs have things a bit easier than others. Their metabolisms are relatively efficient, they carry functional – if not athletic – muscle mass and are essentially ready to take on whatever fitness goal they please with minimal foundational work.

But remember, while there are undoubtedly some people who look lean and fit with zero effort, they are the exception to the rule. Most individuals who present a more-mesomorphic body composition have developed it as a consequence of numerous factors over their entire lifetime. And for formally endo- or ectomorphic individuals who have improved their lifestyles, diets, and fitness, hard work and discipline are the biggest factors of all.

A mesomorphic body type indicates a client is ready to transition to more advanced forms of power (like SAQ training), athletic, and sport-specific training. Comparatively, diets for mesomorphic bodies should be tailored specifically to health and fitness goals. Protein should be consumed anywhere between and grams per kilogram body weight depending on the intensity of the exercise program, with remaining calories coming from a blend of healthy carbs and fats. Then, if changes in body composition are still desired, the daily calorie load can either be increased or decreased to gain or lose weight, respectively.


  • Utilize OPT Phases directly aligned to client goals.
  • Eat specifically for fitness goals and activity, increasing or decreasing daily calories to preferentially control body composition with positive, neutral, or negative energy balances.
  • Increase protein intakes to as high as grams per kilogram of body weight for muscle gain goals; or, keep closer to the gram per kilogram of body weight FDA recommended dietary allowance (RDA) when healthy body composition maintenance is all that is desired.

Other NASM stuff to check out

If you are wanting to start training clients professionally as a personal trainer, nutrition coach, or both, NASM has a fitness-nutrition bundle that combines both products into one package. 

For a great tool that calculates the amount of calories needed to hit weight loss goals, check out the NASM Weight Loss Calculator.

Also, see their online CEU nutrition courses for more great information (including 2 free mini courses). 


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Carter, J.E.L. & Heath, B.H. (). Somatotyping – development and applications. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN

Carter, J.E.L. (). The Heath-Carter Anthropometric Somatotype, Instruction Manual. Department of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University. Accessed online at:

Clark, M.A., Lucett, S.C., McGill, E., Montel, I., & Sutton, B. (). NASM Essentials of Personal Fitness Training, 6th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN

National Academy of Sports Medicine. (). Certified Nutrition Coach. Online education program, accessed at

Toth, T., Michalikova, M., Bednarcikova, L., Zivacak, J., & Kneppo, P. (). Somatotypes in Sport. Acta Mechanica et Automatica, 8(1). DOI /ama


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