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Firearm

This article is about the projectile weapon. For other uses, see Firearm (disambiguation).

Not to be confused with air gun.

Gun for an individual

A firearm is any type of gun designed to be readily carried and used by an individual.[1][2][3] The term is legally defined further in different countries (see Legal definitions).

The first firearms originated in 10th-century China, when bamboo tubes containing gunpowder and pellet projectiles were mounted on spears to make the portable fire lance,[4] operable by a single person, which was later used to good effect in the Siege of De'an in In the 13th century, fire lance barrels were replaced with metal tubes and transformed into the metal-barreled hand cannon.[5] The technology gradually spread throughout Eurasia during the 14th century. Older firearms typically used black powder as a propellant, but modern firearms use smokeless powder or other propellants. Most modern firearms (with the notable exception of smoothboreshotguns) have rifled barrels to impart spin to the projectile for improved flight stability.

Modern firearms can be described by their caliber (i.e. bore diameter). For pistols and rifles this is given in millimeters or inches (e.g. mm or in.), or in the case of shotguns by their gauge (e.g. 12 ga. and 20 ga.). They are also described by the type of action employed (e.g. muzzleloader, breechloader, lever, bolt, pump, revolver, semi-automatic, fully automatic, etc.), together with the usual means of deportment (i.e. hand-held or mechanical mounting). Further classification may make reference to the type of barrel used (i.e. rifled) and to the barrel length (e.g. 24 inches), to the firing mechanism (e.g. matchlock, wheellock, flintlock, or percussion lock), to the design's primary intended use (e.g. hunting rifle), or to the commonly accepted name for a particular variation (e.g. Gatling gun).

Shooters aim firearms at their targets with hand-eye coordination, using either iron sights or optical sights. The accurate range of pistols generally does not exceed metres (&#;yd; &#;ft), while most rifles are accurate to metres (&#;yd; 1,&#;ft) using iron sights, or to longer ranges whilst using optical sights. (Firearm rounds may be dangerous or lethal well beyond their accurate range; the minimum distance for safety is much greater than the specified range for accuracy). Purpose-built sniper rifles and anti-materiel rifles are accurate to ranges of more than 2, metres (2,&#;yd).

Types[edit]

For a more detailed list of common firearms, see List of firearms, List of most-produced firearms, and Small Arms and Light Weapons.

A firearm is a barreledranged weapon that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of a chemical propellant, historically black powder, now smokeless powder.[1][2][3]

In the military, firearms are categorized into "heavy" and "light" weapons regarding their portability by foot soldiers. Light firearms are those that can be readily carried by individual infantrymen (i.e. "man-portable"), though they might still require multiple individuals (crew-served) to achieve optimal operational capacity. Heavy firearms are those that are too large and heavy to be transported on foot, or too unstable against recoil, and thus require the support of a weapons platform (e.g. a fixed mount, wheeled carriage, vehicle, aircraft or water vessel) to be tactically mobile or useful.

The subset of light firearms that only use kinetic projectiles and are compact enough to be operated to full capacity by a single infantryman (individual-served) are also referred to as "small arms". Such firearms include handguns such as revolvers, pistols and derringers, and long guns such as rifles (including many subtypes such as anti-material rifles, sniper rifles/designated marksman rifles, battle rifles, assault rifles and carbines), shotguns, submachine guns/personal defense weapons and squad automatic weapons/light machine guns.[6]

Among the world's arms manufacturers, the top firearms manufacturers are Browning, Remington, Colt, Ruger, Smith & Wesson, Savage, Mossberg (USA), Heckler & Koch, SIG Sauer, Walther (Germany), ČZUB (Czech Republic), Glock, Steyr-Mannlicher (Austria), FN Herstal (Belgium), Beretta (Italy), Norinco (China), Tula Arms and Kalashnikov (Russia), while former top producers included Mauser, Springfield Armory, and Rock Island Armory under Armscor (Philippines).[citation needed]

As of [update] the Small Arms Survey reported that there were over one billion firearms distributed globally, of which &#;million (about 85 percent) were in civilian hands.[7][8] U.S. civilians alone account for &#;million (about 46 percent) of the worldwide total of civilian-held firearms.[8] This amounts to " firearms for every residents."[8] The world's armed forces control about &#;million (about 13 percent) of the global total of small arms, of which over 43 percent belong to two countries: the Russian Federation (&#;million) and China (&#;million).[7]Law enforcement agencies control about 23&#;million (about 2 percent) of the global total of small arms.[7]

Configuration[edit]

Handguns[edit]

Main article: Handgun

Handguns are guns that can be used with a single hand, and are the smallest of all firearms. However, the legal definition of a "handgun" varies between countries and regions. For example, in South African law, a "handgun" means a pistol or revolver which can be held in and discharged with one hand.[9] In Australia, the gun law considers a handgun as a firearm carry-able or concealable about the person; or capable of being raised and fired by one hand; or not exceeding 65&#;cm (26&#;in).[10] In the United States, Title 18 and the ATF considers a handgun as a firearm which has a short stock and is designed to be held and fired by the use of a single hand.[11][12]

There are two common types of handguns: revolvers and semi-automatic pistols. Revolvers have a number of firing chambers or "charge holes" in a revolving cylinder; each chamber in the cylinder is loaded with a single cartridge or charge. Semi-automatic pistols have a single fixed firing-chamber machined into the rear of the barrel, and a magazine so they can be used to fire more than one round. Each press of the trigger fires a cartridge, using the energy of the cartridge to activate a mechanism so that the next cartridge may be fired immediately. This is opposed to "double-action" revolvers, which accomplish the same end using a mechanical action linked to the trigger pull.

With the invention of the revolver in , handguns capable of holding multiple rounds became popular. Certain designs of auto-loading pistol appeared beginning in the s and had largely supplanted revolvers in military applications by the end of World War I. By the end of the 20th century, most handguns carried regularly by military, police and civilians were semi-automatic, although revolvers were still widely used. Generally speaking, military and police forces use semi-automatic pistols due to their high magazine capacities and ability to rapidly reload by simply removing the empty magazine and inserting a loaded one. Revolvers are very common among handgun hunters because revolver cartridges are usually more powerful than similar caliber semi-automatic pistol cartridges (which are designed for self-defense) and the strength, simplicity and durability of the revolver design is well-suited to outdoor use. Revolvers, especially in LR and 38 Special/ Magnum, are also common concealed weapons in jurisdictions allowing this practice because their simple mechanics make them smaller than many autoloaders while remaining reliable. Both designs are common among civilian gun owners, depending on the owner's intention (self-defense, hunting, target shooting, competitions, collecting, etc.).

Long guns[edit]

Main article: Long gun

A long gun is any firearm with a notably long barrel, typically a length of 10 to 30 inches ( to &#;mm) (there are restrictions on minimum barrel length in many jurisdictions; maximum barrel length is usually a matter of practicality). Unlike a handgun, long guns are designed to be held and fired with both hands, while braced against either the hip or the shoulder for better stability. The receiver and trigger group is mounted into a stock made of wood, plastic, metal, or composite material, which has sections that form a foregrip, rear grip, and optionally (but typically) a shoulder mount called the butt. Early long arms, from the Renaissance up to the midth century, were generally smoothbore firearms that fired one or more ball shot, called muskets or arquebus depending on caliber and firing mechanism.

Rifles and shotguns[edit]

Main articles: Rifle and Shotgun

Most modern long guns are either rifles or shotguns. Both are the successors of the musket, diverging from their parent weapon in distinct ways. A rifle is so named for the spiral grooves (riflings) machined into the inner (bore) surface of its barrel, which imparts a gyroscopically-stabilizing spin to the bullets that it fires. Shotguns are predominantly smoothbore firearms designed to fire a number of shot in each discharge; pellet sizes commonly ranging between 2&#;mm #9 birdshot and &#;mm #00 (double-aught) buckshot. Shotguns are also capable of firing single solid projectiles called slugs, or specialty (often "less lethal") rounds such as bean bags, tear gas or breaching rounds. Rifles produce a single point of impact with each firing but a long range and high accuracy; while shotguns produce a cluster of impact points with considerably less range and accuracy. However, the larger impact area of shotguns can compensate for reduced accuracy, since shot spreads during flight; consequently, in hunting, shotguns are generally used for fast-flying game birds.

Rifles and shotguns are commonly used for hunting and often also for home defense, security guard and law enforcement. Usually, large game are hunted with rifles (although shotguns can be used, particularly with slugs), while birds are hunted with shotguns. Shotguns are sometimes preferred for defending a home or business due to their wide impact area, multiple wound tracks (when using buckshot), shorter range, and reduced penetration of walls (when using lighter shot), which significantly reduces the likelihood of unintended harm, although the handgun is also common.

There are a variety of types of rifles and shotguns based on the method they are reloaded. Bolt-action and lever-action rifles are manually operated. Manipulation of the bolt or the lever causes the spent cartridge to be removed, the firing mechanism recocked, and a fresh cartridge inserted. These two types of action are almost exclusively used by rifles. Slide-action (commonly called 'pump-action') rifles and shotguns are manually cycled by shuttling the foregrip of the firearm back and forth. This type of action is typically used by shotguns, but several major manufacturers make rifles that use this action.

Both rifles and shotguns also come in break-action varieties that do not have any kind of reloading mechanism at all but must be hand-loaded after each shot. Both rifles and shotguns come in single- and double-barreled varieties; however, due to the expense and difficulty of manufacturing, double-barreled rifles are rare. Double-barreled rifles are typically intended for African big-game hunts where the animals are dangerous, ranges are short, and speed is of the essence. Very large and powerful calibers are normal for these firearms.

Rifles have been in nationally featured marksmanship events in Europe and the United States since at least the 18th century, when rifles were first becoming widely available. One of the earliest purely "American" rifle-shooting competitions took place in , when Daniel Morgan was recruiting sharpshooters in Virginia for the impending American Revolutionary War. In some countries, rifle marksmanship is still a matter of national pride. Some specialized rifles in the larger calibers are claimed to have an accurate range of up to about 1 mile (1,&#;m), although most have considerably less. In the second half of the 20th century, competitive shotgun sports became perhaps even more popular than riflery, largely due to the motion and immediate feedback in activities such as skeet, trap and sporting clays.

In military use, bolt-action rifles with high-power scopes are common as sniper rifles, however by the Korean War the traditional bolt-action and semi-automatic rifles used by infantrymen had been supplemented by select-fire designs known as automatic rifles.

Carbines[edit]

Main article: Carbine

A carbine is a firearm similar to a rifle in form and intended usage, but generally shorter or smaller than the typical "full-size" hunting or battle rifle of a similar time period, and sometimes using a smaller or less-powerful cartridge. Carbines were and are typically used by members of the military in roles that are expected to engage in combat, but where a full-size rifle would be an impediment to the primary duties of that soldier (vehicle drivers, field commanders and support staff, airborne troops, engineers, etc.). Carbines are also common in law enforcement and among civilian owners where similar size, space and/or power concerns may exist. Carbines, like rifles, can be single-shot, repeating-action, semi-automatic or select-fire/fully automatic, generally depending on the time period and intended market. Common historical examples include the Winchester Model , Lee–Enfield "Jungle Carbine", SKS, M1 carbine (no relation to the larger M1 Garand) and M4 carbine (a more compact variant of the current M16 rifle). Modern U.S. civilian carbines include compact customizations of the AR, Ruger Mini, Beretta Cx4 Storm, Kel-Tec SUB, bolt-action rifles generally falling under the specifications of a scout rifle, and aftermarket conversion kits for popular pistols including the M and Glock models.

Machine guns[edit]

Main article: Machine gun

MG 42general-purpose machine gun with retracted bipod

A machine gun is a fully automatic firearm, most often separated from other classes of automatic weapons by the use of belt-fed ammunition (though some designs employ drum, pan or hopper magazines), generally in a rifle-inspired caliber ranging between ×45mm NATO ( Remington) for a light machine gun to as large as BMG or even larger for crewed or aircraft weapons. Although not widely fielded until World War I, early machine guns were being used by militaries in the second half of the 19th century. Notables in the U.S. arsenal during the 20th century included the M2 Browning caliber heavy machine gun, M Browning caliber medium machine gun, and the M×51mm NATO general-purpose machine gun which came into use around the Vietnam War. Machine guns of this type were originally defensive firearms crewed by at least two men, mainly because of the difficulties involved in moving and placing them, their ammunition, and their tripod. In contrast, modern light machine guns such as the FN Minimi are often wielded by a single infantryman. They provide a large ammunition capacity and a high rate of fire, and are typically used to give suppressing fire during infantry movement. Accuracy on machine guns varies based on a wide number of factors from design to manufacturing tolerances, most of which have been improved over time. Machine guns are often mounted on vehicles or helicopters and have been used since World War I as offensive firearms in fighter aircraft and tanks (e.g. for air combat or suppressing fire for ground troop support).

The definition of a machine gun is different in U.S. law. The National Firearms Act and Firearm Owners Protection Act define a "machine gun" in the United States code Title 26, Subtitle E, Chapter 53, Subchapter B, Part 1, § as: " any firearm which shoots automatically more than one shot, without manual reloading, by a single function of the trigger". "Machine gun" is therefore largely synonymous with "automatic weapon" in the U.S. civilian parlance, covering all automatic firearms.

Sniper rifles[edit]

Main article: Sniper rifle

The definition of a sniper rifle is disputed among military, police and civilian observers alike, however most generally define a “sniper rifle” as a high powered, semi-automatic/bolt action, precision rifle with an accurate range further than that of a standard rifle. These are often purpose-built for their applications. For example, a police sniper rifle may differ in specs from a military rifle. Police snipers generally do not engage targets at extreme range, but rather, a target at medium range. They may also have multiple targets within the shorter range, and thus a semi-automatic model is preferred to a bolt action. They also may be more compact than mil-spec rifles as police marksmen may need more portability. On the other hand, a military rifle is more likely to use a higher-powered cartridge to defeat body armor or medium-light cover. They are more commonly (but not a lot more) bolt-action, as they are simpler to build and maintain. Also, due to fewer moving and overall parts, they are much more reliable under adverse conditions. They may also have a more powerful scope to acquire targets further away. Overall, sniper units never became prominent until World War I, when the Germans displayed their usefulness on the battlefield. Since then, they have become irrevocably embedded in warfare. Examples of sniper rifles include the Accuracy International AWM, Sako TRG and the CheyTac M Examples of specialized sniper cartridges include the Lapua Magnum, Winchester Magnum, and CheyTac rounds.

Submachine guns[edit]

Main article: Submachine gun

A submachine gun is a magazine-fed firearm, usually smaller than other automatic firearms, that fires pistol-caliber ammunition; for this reason certain submachine guns can also be referred to as machine pistols, especially when referring to handgun-sized designs such as the Škorpion vz. 61 and Glock Well-known examples are the Israeli Uzi and Heckler & Koch MP5 which use the 9×19mm Parabellum cartridge, and the American Thompson submachine gun which fires ACP. Because of their small size and limited projectile penetration compared to high-power rifle rounds, submachine guns are commonly favored by military, paramilitary and police forces for close-quarters engagements such as inside buildings, in urban areas or in trench complexes.

Suomi M31submachine with a round drum magazine attached, and round box magazines.

Submachine guns were originally about the size of carbines. Because they fire pistol ammunition, they have limited long-range use, but in close combat can be used in fully automatic in a controllable manner due to the lighter recoil of the pistol ammunition. They are also extremely inexpensive and simple to build in time of war, enabling a nation to quickly arm its military. In the latter half of the 20th century, submachine guns were being miniaturized to the point of being only slightly larger than some large handguns. The most widely used submachine gun at the end of the 20th century was the Heckler & Koch MP5. The MP5 is actually designated as a "machine pistol" by Heckler & Koch (MP5 stands for Maschinenpistole 5, or Machine Pistol 5), although some reserve this designation for even smaller submachine guns such as the MAC and Glock 18, which are about the size and shape of pistols.

Automatic rifles[edit]

Main article: Automatic rifle

An automatic rifle is a magazine-fed firearm, wielded by a single infantryman, that is chambered for rifle cartridges and capable of automatic fire. The M Browning Automatic Rifle was the first U.S. infantry weapon of this type, and was generally used for suppressive or support fire in the role now usually filled by the light machine gun. Other early automatic rifles include the Fedorov Avtomat and the Huot Automatic Rifle. Later, German forces fielded the Sturmgewehr 44 during World War II, a light automatic rifle firing a reduced power "intermediate cartridge". This design was to become the basis for the "assault rifle" subclass of automatic weapons, as contrasted with "battle rifles", which generally fire a traditional "full-power" rifle cartridge.

Assault rifles[edit]

Main article: Assault rifle

In World War II, Germany introduced the StG 44, and brought to the forefront of firearm technology what eventually became the class of firearm most widely adopted by the military, the assault rifle. An assault rifle is usually slightly smaller than a battle rifle such as the American M14, but the chief differences defining an assault rifle are select-fire capability and the use of a rifle round of lesser power, known as an intermediate cartridge.

Soviet engineer Mikhail Kalashnikov quickly adapted the German concept, using a less-powerful ×39mm cartridge derived from the standard ×54mmR Russian battle rifle round, to produce the AK, which has become the world's most widely used assault rifle. Soon after World War II, the Automatic Kalashnikov AK assault rifle began to be fielded by the Soviet Union and its allies in the Eastern Bloc, as well as by nations such as China, North Korea, and North Vietnam.

In the United States, the assault rifle design was later in coming; the replacement for the M1 Garand of WWII was another John Garand design chambered for the new ×51mm NATO cartridge; the select-fire M14, which was used by the U.S. military until the s. The significant recoil of the M14 when fired in full-automatic mode was seen as a problem as it reduced accuracy, and in the s it was replaced by Eugene Stoner's AR, which also marked a switch from the powerful caliber cartridges used by the U.S. military up until early in the Vietnam War to the much less powerful but far lighter and light recoiling caliber (mm) intermediate cartridge. The military later designated the AR as the "M16". The civilian version of the M16 continues to be known as the AR and looks exactly like the military version, although to conform to ATF regulations in the U.S., it lacks the mechanism that permits fully automatic fire.

Variants of both of the M16 and AK are still in wide international use today, though other automatic rifle designs have since been introduced. A smaller version of the M16A2, the M4 carbine, is widely used by U.S. and NATO tank and vehicle crews, airbornes, support staff, and in other scenarios where space is limited. The IMI Galil, an Israeli-designed weapon based on the action of the AK, is in use by Israel, Italy, Burma, the Philippines, Peru, and Colombia. Swiss Arms of Switzerland produces the SIG SG assault rifle used by France, Chile, and Spain among others, and Steyr Mannlicher produces the AUG, a bullpup rifle in use in Austria, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and Saudi Arabia among other nations.

Modern designs call for compact weapons retaining firepower. The bullpup design, by mounting the magazine behind the trigger, unifies the accuracy and firepower of the traditional assault rifle with the compact size of the submachine gun (though submachine guns are still used); examples are the French FAMAS and the British SA

Personal defense weapons[edit]

Main article: Personal defense weapon

A recently developed class of firearm is the personal defense weapon or PDW, which is in simplest terms a submachine gun designed to fire ammunitions with ballistic performance similar to rifle cartridges. While a submachine gun is desirable for its compact size and ammunition capacity, its pistol cartridges lack the penetrating capability of a rifle round. Conversely, rifle bullets can pierce light armor and are easier to shoot accurately, but even a carbine such as the Colt M4 is larger and/or longer than a submachine gun, making it harder to maneuver in close quarters. The solution many firearms manufacturers have presented is a weapon resembling a submachine gun in size and general configuration, but which fires a higher-powered armor-penetrating round (often specially designed for the weapon), thus combining the advantages of a carbine and submachine gun. This also earned the PDWs an infrequently used nickname — the submachine carbines. The FN P90 and Heckler & Koch MP7 are most famous examples of PDWs.

Battle rifles[edit]

Main article: Battle rifle

Battle rifles are another subtype of rifle, usually defined as selective fire rifles that use full power rifle cartridges, examples of which include the x51mm NATO, x57mm Mauser, and x54mmR. These serve similar purposes as assault rifles, as they both are usually employed by ground infantry. However, some prefer battle rifles due to their more powerful cartridge, despite added recoil. Some semi-automatic sniper rifles are configured from battle rifles.

Function[edit]

Main article: Firearm action

Firearms are also categorized by their functioning cycle or "action" which describes its loading, firing, and unloading cycle.

Manual[edit]

The earliest evolution of the firearm, there are many types of manual action firearms. These can be divided into two basic categories: single shot and repeating.

A single shot firearm can only be fired once per equipped barrel before it must be reloaded or charged via an external mechanism or series of steps. A repeating firearm can be fired multiple times, but can only be fired once with each subsequent pull of the trigger. Between trigger pulls, the firearm's action must be reloaded or charged via an internal mechanism.

Lever action[edit]

A gun which has a lever that is pulled down then back up to expel the old cartridge then load a new round.

Pump action[edit]

Pump action weapons are primarily shotguns. A pump action is created when the user slides a lever (usually a grip) and it brings a new round in the chamber while expelling the old one.[13]

Semi-automatic[edit]

Main article: Semi-automatic firearm

A semi-automatic, self-loading, or "auto loader" firearm is one that performs all steps necessary to prepare it for firing again after a single discharge, until cartridges are no longer available in the weapon's feed device or magazine. Auto loaders fire one round with each pull of the trigger. Some people confuse the term with "fully automatic" firearms. (See next.) While some semi-automatic rifles may resemble military-style firearms, they are not properly classified "Assault Weapons" which refers to those that continue to fire until the trigger is no longer depressed.

Automatic[edit]

Main article: Automatic firearm

An automatic firearm, or "fully automatic", "fully auto", or "full auto", is generally defined as one that continues to load and fire cartridges from its magazine as long as the trigger is depressed (and until the magazine is depleted of available ammunition.) The first weapon generally considered in this category is the Gatling gun, originally a carriage-mounted, crank-operated firearm with multiple rotating barrels that was fielded in the American Civil War. The modern trigger-actuated machine gun began with various designs developed in the late 19th century and fielded in World War I, such as the Maxim gun, Lewis Gun, and MG 08 "Spandau". Most automatic weapons are classed as long guns (as the ammunition used is of similar type as for rifles, and the recoil of the weapon's rapid fire is better controlled with two hands), but handgun-sized automatic weapons also exist, generally in the "submachine gun" or "machine pistol" class.

Selective fire[edit]

Main article: Selective fire

Selective fire, or "select fire", means the capability of a weapon's fire control to be adjusted in either semi-automatic, fully automatic firing modes, or 3 round burst. The modes are chosen by means of a selector, which varies depending on the weapon's design. Some selective-fire weapons have burst fire mechanisms built in to limit the maximum number of shots fired in fully automatic mode, with most common limits being two or three rounds per trigger pull. The presence of selective-fire modes on firearms allows more efficient use of ammunition for specific tactical needs, either precision-aimed or suppressive fire. This capability is most commonly found on military weapons of the 20th and 21st centuries, most notably the assault rifles.

History[edit]

Main article: History of the firearm

See also: History of gunpowder

The first primitive firearms were invented about AD in China when the man-portable fire lance (a bamboo or metal tube that could shoot ignited gunpowder) was combined with projectiles such as scrap metal, broken porcelain, or darts/arrows.[4][14]

The earliest depiction of a firearm is a sculpture from a cave in Sichuan, China. The sculpture dates to the 12th century and is of a figure carrying a vase-shaped bombard, with flames and a cannonball coming out of it.[15]:&#;31–32&#; The oldest surviving gun, a hand cannon made of bronze, has been dated to because it was discovered at a site in modern-day Acheng District, Heilongjiang, China, where the Yuan Shi records that battles were fought at that time.[16] The firearm had a inch barrel of a 1-inch diameter, a inch chamber for the gunpowder and a socket for the firearm's handle. It is inches long and pounds without the handle, which would have been made of wood.[15]:&#;32&#;

The Arabs and Mamluks had firearms in the late 13th century.[17][18][19] In the 14th century, firearms were obtained by the Europeans.[15]:&#;1&#; The Koreans adopted firearms from the Chinese in the 14th century. The Iranians (first Aq Qoyunlu and Safavids) and Indians (first Mughals) all got them no later than the 15th century, from the Ottoman Turks. The people of Nusantara archipelago of Southeast Asia used long arquebus at least by the last quarter of 15th century.[20]:&#;23&#;

The istinggar, a result of Indo-Portuguese gun-making traditions

Even though the knowledge of making gunpowder-based weapon in Nusantara archipelago has been known after the failed Mongol invasion of Java (), and the predecessor of firearms, the pole gun (bedil tombak), was recorded as being used by Java in ,[21][22]:&#;&#; the knowledge of making "true" firearms came much later, after the middle of 15th century. It was brought by the Islamic nations of West Asia, most probably the Arabs. The precise year of introduction is unknown, but it may be safely concluded to be no earlier than [20]:&#;23&#; Before the arrival of the Portuguese in Southeast Asia, the natives already possessed primitive firearms, the Java arquebus.[23]

A) The matchlock gun with button for trigger, which came to Lisbon from Bohemia, used by the Portuguese until the conquest of Goa in B) The Indo-Portuguese matchlock gun resulted from the combination of Portuguese and Goan gunmaking. C) The Japanese matchlock gun appeared as a copy of the first firearm introduced in the Japanese islands.

The technology of firearm in Southeast Asia further improved after the Portuguese capture of Malacca ().[24] Starting in the , the tradition of German-Bohemian gun making were merged with Turkish gun making traditions.[25]:&#;39–41&#; This resulted in Indo-Portuguese tradition of matchlocks. Indian craftsmen modified the design by introducing a very short, almost pistol-like buttstock held against the cheek, not the shoulder, when aiming. They also reduced the caliber and made the gun lighter and more balanced. This was a hit with the Portuguese who did a lot of fighting aboard ship and on river craft, and valued a more compact gun.[26]:&#;41&#;[27] The Malay gunfounders,[check spelling] compared as being in the same level with those of Germany, quickly adapted these new firearms, and thus a new type of arquebus, the istinggar, appeared.[28]:&#;&#; The Japanese did not acquire firearms until the 16th century, and then from the Portuguese rather than the Chinese.[15]:&#;31–32&#;

The development behind firearms accelerated during the 19th and 20th centuries. Breech-loading became more or less a universal standard for the reloading of most hand-held firearms and continues to be so with some notable exceptions (such as mortars). Instead of loading individual rounds into weapons, magazines holding multiple munitions were adopted—these aided rapid reloading. Automatic and semi-automatic firing mechanisms meant that a single soldier could fire many more rounds in a minute than a vintage weapon could fire over the course of a battle. Polymers and alloys in firearm construction made weaponry progressively lighter and thus easier to deploy. Ammunition changed over the centuries from simple metallic ball-shaped projectiles that rattled down the barrel to bullets and cartridges manufactured to high precision. Especially in the past century has particular attention been devoted to accuracy and sighting to make firearms altogether far more accurate than ever before. More than any single factor though, firearms have proliferated due to the advent of mass production—enabling arms manufacturers to produce large quantities of weaponry to a consistent standard.[citation needed]

Velocities of bullets increased with the use of a "jacket" of a metal such as copper or copper alloys that covered a lead core and allowed the bullet to glide down the barrel more easily than exposed lead. Such bullets are designated as "full metal jacket" (FMJ). Such FMJ bullets are less likely to fragment on impact and are more likely to traverse through a target while imparting less energy. Hence, FMJ bullets impart less tissue damage than non-jacketed bullets that expand. (Dougherty and Eidt, ) This led to their adoption for military use by countries adhering to the Hague Convention in [29]

That said, the basic principle behind firearm operation remains unchanged to this day. A musket of several centuries ago is still similar in principle to a modern-day assault rifle—using the expansion of gases to propel projectiles over long distances—albeit less accurately and rapidly.[30]

Evolution[edit]

Early models[edit]

Fire lances[edit]

Main article: Fire lance

The Chinese fire lance from the 10th century was the direct predecessor to the modern concept of the firearm. It was not a gun itself, but an addition to the soldiers' spears. Originally it consisted of paper or bamboo barrels that would have incendiary gunpowder within it, that could be lit one time and would project flames at the enemy. Sometimes the Chinese troops would place small projectiles within the barrel that would also be projected when the gunpowder was lit, but most of the explosive force would create flames. Later, the barrel was changed to be made of metal, so that a more explosive gunpowder could be used and put more force into the propulsion of the projectile.[15]:&#;31–32&#;

Hand cannons[edit]

Main article: Hand cannon

Hand cannonbeing fired from a stand, "Belli Fortis", manuscript, by Konrad Kyeser,

The original predecessor of all firearms, the Chinese fire lance[when?] and hand cannon were loaded with gunpowder and the shot (initially lead shot, later replaced by cast iron[citation needed]) through the muzzle, while a fuse was placed at the rear. This fuse was lit, causing the gunpowder to ignite and propel the cannonball. In military use, the standard hand cannon was tremendously powerful, while also being somewhat useless[citation needed] due to relative inability of the gunner to aim the weapon, or control the ballistic properties of the projectile. Recoil could be absorbed by bracing the barrel against the ground using a wooden support, the forerunner of the stock. Neither the quality or amount of gunpowder, nor the consistency in projectile dimensions were controlled, with resulting inaccuracy in firing due to windage, variance in gunpowder composition, and the difference in diameter between the bore and the shot. The hand cannons were replaced by lighter carriage-mounted artillery pieces, and ultimately the arquebus.

In the s gunpowder was used to propel missiles from hand-held tubes during the Hussite revolt.[31]

Muskets[edit]

Main article: Musket

Muzzle-loading muskets (smooth-bored long guns) were among the first firearms developed.[when?] The firearm was loaded through the muzzle with gunpowder, optionally some wadding and then a bullet (usually a solid lead ball, but musketeers could shoot stones when they ran out of bullets). Greatly improved muzzleloaders (usually rifled instead of smooth-bored) are manufactured today and have many enthusiasts, many of whom hunt large and small game with their guns. Muzzleloaders have to be manually reloaded after each shot; a skilled archer could fire multiple arrows faster than most early muskets could be reloaded and fired, although by the midth century, when muzzleloaders became the standard small armament of the military, a well-drilled soldier could fire six rounds in a minute using prepared cartridges in his musket. Before then, effectiveness of muzzleloaders was hindered by both the low reloading speed and, before the firing mechanism was perfected, the very high risk posed by the firearm to the person attempting to fire it.[citation needed]

One interesting solution to the reloading problem was the "Roman Candle Gun" with superposed loads. This was a muzzleloader in which multiple charges and balls were loaded one on top of the other, with a small hole in each ball to allow the subsequent charge to be ignited after the one ahead of it was ignited. It was neither a very reliable nor popular firearm, but it enabled a form of "automatic" fire long before the advent of the machine gun.[32]

Loading techniques[edit]

Main article: Muzzleloader

Most early firearms were muzzle-loading. This form of loading has several disadvantages, such as a slow rate of fire and having to expose oneself to enemy fire to reload as the weapon had to be pointed upright so the powder could be poured through the muzzle into the breech followed by the ramming the projectile into the breech. As effective methods of sealing the breech were developed through the development of sturdy, weatherproof, self-contained metallic cartridges, muzzle-loaders were replaced by single-shot breech loaders. Eventually single-shot weapons were replaced by the following repeater type weapons.

Internal magazines[edit]

Main article: Magazine (firearms)

Many firearms made in the late 19th century through the s used internal magazines to load the cartridge into the chamber of the weapon. The most notable and revolutionary weapons of this period appeared during the U.S. Civil War and they were the Spencer and Henry repeating rifles. Both used fixed tubular magazines, the former having the magazine in the buttstock and the latter under the barrel which allowed a larger capacity. Later weapons used fixed box magazines that could not be removed from the weapon without disassembling the weapon itself. Fixed magazines permitted the use of larger cartridges and eliminated the hazard of having the bullet of one cartridge butting next to the primer or rim of another cartridge. These magazines are loaded while they are in the weapon, often using a stripper clip. A clip is used to transfer cartridges into the magazine. Some notable weapons that use internal magazines include the Mosin–Nagant, the Mauser Kar 98k, the Springfield M, the M1 Garand, and the SKS. Firearms that have internal magazines are usually, but not always, rifles. Some exceptions to this include the Mauser C96 pistol, which uses an internal magazine, and the Breda 30, an Italian light machine gun.

Detachable magazines[edit]

Many modern firearms use what are called detachable or box magazines as their method of chambering a cartridge. Detachable magazines can be removed from the weapon without disassembling the firearms, usually by pushing the magazine release.

Belt-fed weapons[edit]

Main article: Belt (firearm)

A belt or ammunition belt is a device used to retain and feed cartridges into a firearm commonly used on machine guns. Belts were originally composed of canvas or cloth with pockets spaced evenly to allow the belt to be mechanically fed into the gun. These designs were prone to malfunctions due to the effects of oil and other contaminants altering the belt. Later belt designs used permanently connected metal links to retain the cartridges during feeding. These belts were more tolerant to exposure to solvents and oil. Some notable weapons that use belts are the M, the M, the M Minigun, and the PK Machine Gun.

Firing mechanisms[edit]

Further information: Trigger (firearms) and Firearm action

Matchlock[edit]

Main article: Matchlock

Various Japanese (samurai) Edo periodmatchlocks (tanegashima).

Matchlocks were the first and simplest firearms firing mechanisms developed. Using the matchlock mechanism, the powder in the gun barrel was ignited by a piece of burning cord called a "match". The match was wedged into one end of an S-shaped piece of steel. As the trigger (often actually a lever) was pulled, the match was brought into the open end of a "touch hole" at the base of the gun barrel, which contained a very small quantity of gunpowder, igniting the main charge of gunpowder in the gun barrel. The match usually had to be relit after each firing. The main parts to the matchlock firing mechanism are the pan, match, arm and trigger.[33] A benefit of the pan and arm swivel being moved to the side of the gun was it gave a clear line of fire.[34] An advantage to the matchlock firing mechanism is that it did not misfire. However, it also came with some disadvantages. One disadvantage was if it was raining the match could not be kept lit to fire the weapon. Another issue with the match was it could give away the position of soldiers because of the glow, sound, and smell.[35] While European pistols were equipped with wheellock and flintlock mechanism, Asian pistols were equipped with matchlock mechanism.[36]

Wheellock[edit]

Main article: Wheellock

A wheellock pistol mechanism from the 17th century

The wheellock action, a successor to the matchlock, predated the flintlock. Despite its many faults, the wheellock was a significant improvement over the matchlock in terms of both convenience and safety, since it eliminated the need to keep a smoldering match in proximity to loose gunpowder. It operated using a small wheel much like that on cigarette lighters which was wound up with a key before use and which, when the trigger was pulled, spun against a flint, creating the shower of sparks that ignited the powder in the touch hole. Supposedly invented by Leonardo da Vinci, the Italian Renaissance man, the wheellock action was an innovation that was not widely adopted due to the high cost of the clockwork mechanism.

Flintlock[edit]

Main article: Flintlock

The flintlock action was a major innovation in firearm design. The spark used to ignite the gunpowder in the touch hole was supplied by a sharpened piece of flint clamped in the jaws of a "cock" which, when released by the trigger, struck a piece of steel called the "frizzen" to create the necessary sparks. (The spring-loaded arm that holds a piece of flint or pyrite is referred to as a cock because of its resemblance to a rooster.) The cock had to be manually reset after each firing, and the flint had to be replaced periodically due to wear from striking the frizzen. (See also flintlock mechanism, snaphance, Miquelet lock) The flintlock was widely used during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries in both muskets and rifles.

Percussion cap[edit]

Further information: Percussion cap and Caplock mechanism

Percussion caps (caplock mechanisms), coming into wide service in the early 19th century, were a dramatic improvement over flintlocks. With the percussion cap mechanism, the small primer charge of gunpowder used in all preceding firearms was replaced by a completely self-contained explosive charge contained in a small brass "cap". The cap was fastened to the touch hole of the gun (extended to form a "nipple") and ignited by the impact of the gun's "hammer". (The hammer is roughly the same as the cock found on flintlocks except that it does not clamp onto anything.) In the case of percussion caps the hammer was hollow on the end to fit around the cap in order to keep the cap from fragmenting and injuring the shooter.

Once struck, the flame from the cap in turn ignited the main charge of gunpowder, as with the flintlock, but there was no longer any need to charge the touch hole with gunpowder, and even better, the touch hole was no longer exposed to the elements. As a result, the percussion cap mechanism was considerably safer, far more weatherproof, and vastly more reliable (cloth-bound cartridges containing a premeasured charge of gunpowder and a ball had been in regular military service for many years, but the exposed gunpowder in the entry to the touch hole had long been a source of misfires). All muzzleloaders manufactured since the second half of the 19th century use percussion caps except those built as replicas of the flintlock or earlier firearms.

Cartridges[edit]

Main article: Cartridge (firearms)

Further information: Magazine (firearms) and Ammunition

Frenchman Louis-Nicolas Flobert invented the first rimfire metallic cartridge in His cartridge consisted of a percussion cap with a bullet attached to the top.[37][38] Flobert then made what he called "parlor guns" for this cartridge, as these rifles and pistols were designed to be shot in indoor shooting parlors in large homes.[39][40] These 6mm Flobert cartridges, do not contain any powder, the only propellant substance contained in the cartridge is the percussion cap.[41] In English-speaking countries, the 6mm Flobert cartridge corresponds to BB Cap and CB Cap ammunition. These cartridges have a relatively low muzzle velocity of around &#;ft/s (&#;m/s).

This was major innovation in firearms ammunition, previously delivered as separate bullets and powder, was combined in a single metallic (usually brass) cartridge containing a percussion cap, powder, and a bullet in one weatherproof package. The main technical advantage of the brass cartridge case was the effective and reliable sealing of high pressure gasses at the breech, as the gas pressure forces the cartridge case to expand outward, pressing it firmly against the inside of the gun barrel chamber. This prevents the leakage of hot gas which could injure the shooter. The brass cartridge also opened the way for modern repeating arms, by uniting the bullet, gunpowder and primer into one assembly that could be fed reliably into the breech by a mechanical action in the firearm.

Before this, a "cartridge" was simply a premeasured quantity of gunpowder together with a ball in a small cloth bag (or rolled paper cylinder), which also acted as wadding for the charge and ball. This early form of cartridge had to be rammed into the muzzleloader's barrel, and either a small charge of gunpowder in the touch hole or an external percussion cap mounted on the touch hole ignited the gunpowder in the cartridge. Cartridges with built-in percussion caps (called "primers") continue to this day to be the standard in firearms. In cartridge-firing firearms, a hammer (or a firing pin struck by the hammer) strikes the cartridge primer, which then ignites the gunpowder within. The primer charge is at the base of the cartridge, either within the rim (a "rimfire" cartridge) or in a small percussion cap embedded in the center of the base (a "centerfire" cartridge). As a rule, centerfire cartridges are more powerful than rimfire cartridges, operating at considerably higher pressures than rimfire cartridges. Centerfire cartridges are also safer, as a dropped rimfire cartridge has the potential to discharge if its rim strikes the ground with sufficient force to ignite the primer. This is practically impossible with most centerfire cartridges.

Nearly all contemporary firearms load cartridges directly into their breech. Some additionally or exclusively load from a magazine that holds multiple cartridges. A magazine is defined as a part of the firearm which exists to store ammunition and assist in its feeding by the action into the breech (such as through the rotation of a revolver's cylinder or by spring-loaded platforms in most pistol and rifle designs). Some magazines, such as that of most centerfire hunting rifles and all revolvers, are internal to and inseparable from the firearm, and are loaded by using a "clip". A clip, often mistakingly used to refer to a detachable "magazine", is a device that holds the ammunition by the rim of the case and is designed to assist the shooter in reloading the firearm's magazine. Examples include revolver speedloaders, the stripper clip used to aid loading rifles such as the Lee–Enfield or Mauser 98, and the en-bloc clip used in loading the M1 Garand. In this sense, "magazines" and "clips", though often used synonymously, refer to different types of devices.

Repeating, semi-automatic, and automatic firearms[edit]

Further information: Single-shot

Main article: Repeating rifle

Main article: Semi-automatic firearm

The M4 carbine, a modern-day service rifle capable of being fired automatically. It is in service by the U.S. military and has a wide ability for customization.

Many firearms are "single shot": i.e., each time a cartridge is fired, the operator must manually re-cock the firearm and load another cartridge. The classic single-barreled shotgun is a good example. A firearm that can load multiple cartridges as the firearm is re-cocked is considered a "repeating firearm" or simply a "repeater". A lever-action rifle, a pump-action shotgun, and most bolt-action rifles are good examples of repeating firearms. A firearm that automatically re-cocks and reloads the next round with each trigger pull is considered a semi-automatic or autoloading firearm.

The first "rapid firing" firearms were usually similar to the 19th century Gatling gun, which would fire cartridges from a magazine as fast as and as long as the operator turned a crank. Eventually, the "rapid" firing mechanism was perfected and miniaturized to the extent that either the recoil of the firearm or the gas pressure from firing could be used to operate it, thus the operator needed only to pull a trigger (which made the firing mechanisms truly "automatic"). An automatic (or "fully automatic") firearm is one that automatically re-cocks, reloads, and fires as long as the trigger is depressed. An automatic firearm is capable of firing multiple rounds with one pull of the trigger. The Gatling gun may have been the first automatic weapon, though the modern trigger-actuated machine gun was not widely introduced until the First World War with the German "Spandau" and British Lewis Gun. Automatic rifles such as the Browning Automatic Rifle were in common use by the military during the early part of the 20th century, and automatic rifles that fired handgun rounds, known as submachine guns, also appeared in this time. Many modern military firearms have a selective fire option, which is a mechanical switch that allows the firearm be fired either in the semi-automatic or fully automatic mode. In the current M16A2 and M16A4 variants of the U.S.-made M16, continuous fully automatic fire is not possible, having been replaced by an automatic burst of three cartridges (this conserves ammunition and increases controllability). Automatic weapons are largely restricted to military and paramilitary organizations, though many automatic designs are infamous for their use by civilians.

Health hazards[edit]

See also: Gunshot wound and Gun safety

Firearm hazard is quite notable, with a significant impact on the health system. In , for quantification purpose, it was estimated that the cost of fatalities and injuries was US$&#;million per year in Canada (US$ per Canadian) and US$,&#;million per year in the USA (US$ per American).[42]

Death[edit]

Gun-related homicide and suicide ratesin high-income OECDcountries, , ordered by total death rates (homicide plus suicide plus other gun-related deaths).[43]

From to , global deaths from assault by firearm rose from , to ,,[44][45] however this represents a drop in rate from /, to /,, as world population has increased by more than two billion.[46] Additionally, there were 32, unintentional firearm global deaths in [44]

In , there were 39, gun-related deaths in the United States; over 60% were suicides from firearms.[47] Firearms are the second leading mechanism of injury deaths after motor vehicle accidents.[48][49]

In the 52 high- and middle-income countries, with a combined population of 1,&#;million and not engaged in civil conflict, fatalities due to firearm injuries were estimated at , people per annum, in the s[42]

In those 52 countries, firearm is the first method used for homicide (two thirds) but only the second method for suicide (20%)[42]

To prevent unintentional injury, gun safety training includes education on proper firearm storage and firearm-handling etiquette.[50][51]

Injury[edit]

Based on US data, it is estimated that three people are injured for one killed.[42]

Noise[edit]

A common hazard of repeated firearm use is noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). NIHL can result from long-term exposure to noise or from high intensity impact noises such as gunshots.[52][53] Individuals who shoot guns often have a characteristic pattern of hearing loss referred to as "shooters ear". They often have a high frequency loss with better hearing in the low frequencies and one ear is typically worse than the other. The ear on the side the shooter is holding the gun will receive protection from the sound wave from the shoulder while the other ear remains unprotected and more susceptible to the full impact of the sound wave.[53][54]

The intensity of a gunshot does vary; lower caliber guns are typically on the softer side while higher caliber guns are often louder. The intensity of a gunshot though typically ranges from &#;dB to &#;dB. Indoor shooting also causes loud reverberations which can also be as damaging as the actual gunshot itself.[53][54] According to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, noise above 85&#;dB can begin to cause hearing loss.[52] While many sounds cause damage over time, at the intensity level of a gunshot (&#;dB or louder), damage to the ear can occur instantly.[52][54]

Hearing protection is the only way to protect the ears against damage from gunfire as there is no option for the shooter to be further from the sound source or to reduce the intensity to a safe level. If possible, observers should attempt to move away, but hearing protection is often still necessary.[52][53] Different types of shooters may benefit from different types of hearing protection. When target practicing it is recommended to wear an insert plug as well as an over the ear muff.[53] Hunters are recommended to wear electronic type hearing protection which can amplify soft sounds like leaves crunching while reducing the intensity of the gunshot.[53][54] Custom hearing protection can also be effective[53][54] and is typically recommended for individuals who are skeet shooting.[53] Hearing protection does have limitations though, and due to the high intensity of guns it is certainly possible for shooters to still develop hearing loss. However, hearing protection typically reduces the amount of damage the ear sustains even if it cannot completely protect the ear.[53]

Legal definitions[edit]

Firearms include a variety of ranged weapons and there is no agreed-upon definition. For instance English language laws of big legal entities such as the United States, India the European Union and Canada use different definitions. Other English language definitions are provided by international treaties.

United States[edit]

In the United States, under 26 USCA § [unreliable source] (a), the term ‘‘firearm’’ means

  • (1) a shotgun having a barrel or barrels of less than 18 inches in length;
  • (2) a weapon made from a shotgun if such weapon as modified has an overall length of less than 26 inches or a barrel or barrels of less than 18 inches in length;
  • (3) a rifle having a barrel or barrels of less than 16 inches in length;
  • (4) a weapon made from a rifle if such weapon as modified has an overall length of less than 26 inches or a barrel or barrel of less than 16 inches in length;
  • (5) any other weapon, as defined in subsection (e);
  • (6) a machinegun;
  • (7) any silencer (as defined in section of title 18, United States Code);
    The term ‘‘firearm’’ shall not include an antique firearm or any device (other than a machinegun or destructive device) which, although designed as a weapon, the Secretary finds by reason of the date of its manufacture, value, design, and other characteristics is primarily a collector's item and is not likely to be used as a weapon.

According to the US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, if gas pressurization is achieved through mechanicalgas compression rather than through chemical propellant combustion, then the device is technically an air gun, not a firearm.[55]

India[edit]

In India, the arms act, , provides a definition of firearms where "firearms" means arms of any description designed or adapted to discharge a projectile or projectiles of any kind by the action of any explosive or other forms of energy, and includes:

  • (i) artillery, hand-grenades, riot-pistols or weapons of any kind designed or adapted for the discharge of any noxious liquid, gas or other such thing,
  • (ii) accessories for any such firearm designed or adapted to diminish the noise or flash caused by the firing thereof,
  • (iii) parts of, and machinery for manufacturing, fire-arms, and
  • (iv) carriages, platforms and appliances for mounting, transporting and serving artillery;

European Union[edit]

In the European Union, a European Directive amended by EU directive / set minimum standards regarding civilian firearms acquisition and possession that EU Member States must implement into their national legal systems. In this context, since , firearms are considered as any portable barrelled weapon that expels, is designed to expel or may be converted to expel a shot, bullet or projectile by the action of a combustible propellant. [56] For legal reasons, objects can be considered as a firearm if they have the appearance of a firearm or are made in a way which makes it possible to convert them to a firearm. Member states may be allowed to exclude from their gun control law items such as antique weapons, or specific purposes items which can only be used for that sole purpose.

Canada[edit]

In Canada, firearms are defined by the Criminal Code:

firearm means a barrelled weapon from which any shot, bullet or other projectile can be discharged and that is capable of causing serious bodily injury or death to a person, and includes any frame or receiver of such a barrelled weapon and anything that can be adapted for use as a firearm; (arme à feu)[57]

Australia[edit]

Australia has a definition of firearms in its legal act:

"firearm" means any device, whether or not assembled or in parts —

  • (a) which is designed or adapted, or is capable of being modified, to discharge shot or a bullet or other missile by the expansion of gases produced in the device by the ignition of strongly combustible materials or by compressed air or other gases, whether stored in the device in pressurised containers or produced in the device by mechanical means; and
  • (b) whether or not operable or complete or temporarily or permanently inoperable or incomplete

— and which is not —

  • (c) an industrial tool powered by cartridges containing gunpowder or compressed air or other gases which is designed and intended for use for fixing fasteners or plugs or for similar purposes; or
  • (d) a captive bolt humane killer; or
  • (e) a spear gun designed for underwater use; or
  • (f) a device designed for the discharge of signal flares; or
  • (h) a device commonly known as a kiln gun or ringblaster, designed specifically for knocking out or down solid material in kilns, furnaces or cement silos; or
  • (i) a device commonly known as a line thrower designed for establishing lines between structures or natural features and powered by compressed air to other compressed gases and used for rescue purposes, rescue training or rescue demonstration; or
  • (j) a device of a prescribed class;[10]

South Africa[edit]

In South Africa, Firearms Control Act [No. 60 of ] defines firearm since June , with a amendment of the definition:

'firearm' means any-

  • (a) device manufactured or designed to propel a bullet or projectile through a barrel or cylinder by means of burning propellant, at a muzzle energy exceeding 8 joules (6 ft-lbs);
  • (b) device manufactured or designed to discharge rim-fire, centre-fire or pin-fire ammunition;
  • (c) device which is not at the time capable of discharging any bullet or projectile, but which can be readily altered to be a firearm within the meaning of paragraph (a) or (b);
  • (d) device manufactured to discharge a bullet or any other projectile of a calibre of mm ( calibre) or higher at a muzzle energy of more than 8 joules (6 ft-lbs), by means of compressed gas and not by means of burning propellant; or [Para. (d) substituted by s. 1 (b) of Act 43 of ]
  • (e) barrel, frame or receiver of a device referred to in paragraphs (a), (b), (c) or (d), but does not include a muzzle loading firearm or any device contemplated in section 5;[9]

International treaties[edit]

An inter-American convention defines firearms as:

  • any barreled weapon which will or is designed to or may be readily converted to expel a bullet or projectile by the action of an explosive, except antique firearms manufactured before the 20th Century or their replicas; or
  • any other weapon or destructive device such as any explosive, incendiary or gas bomb, grenade, rocket, rocket launcher, missile, missile system, or mine.[58]

An international UN protocol on firearms considers that

“Firearm” shall mean any portable barrelled weapon that expels, is designed to expel or may be readily converted to expel a shot, bullet or projectile by the action of an explosive, excluding antique firearms or their replicas. Antique firearms and their replicas shall be defined in accordance with domestic law. In no case, however, shall antique firearms include firearms manufactured after [59]

See also[edit]

Firearm science and technology
Firearms and society
List of firearms
Firearms groups around the world

References[edit]

  1. ^ abCole, Suzanne N. (November 19, ). Association of Firearm Instructors – Glossary of Firearm Terms. Association of Firearm Instructors. Retrieved April 29,
  2. ^ ab"Merriam-Webster Dictionary, "Firearm"". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved
  3. ^ ab"Firearm". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4&#;ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company. "Firearm". Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged. HarperCollins Publishers.
  4. ^ abHelaine Selin (). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Springer. p.&#; ISBN&#;. Retrieved 30 July
  5. ^Andrade , p.&#;
  6. ^Weller, Jac; Guilmartin, John; Ezell, Edward (November 7, ). "Small arm". Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. Retrieved February 23,
  7. ^ abc"Small Arms Survey reveals: More than one billion firearms in the world". Small Arms Survey. Archived from the original on June 19, Retrieved 15 January
  8. ^ abcAaron Karp (June ). Estimating Global Civilian-Held Firearms Numbers(PDF) (Report). Small Arms Survey. Archived from the original(PDF) on June 20,
  9. ^ abhttps://www.saps.gov.za/resource_centre/acts/downloads/juta/act60ofpdf
  10. ^ ab"FIREARMS ACT - SECT 3 Definitions".
  11. ^"U.S.C. Title 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE".
  12. ^"Firearms - Guides - Importation & Verification of Firearms - Gun Control Act Definition - Pistol &#; Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives".
  13. ^"Definition of PUMP-ACTION".
  14. ^Ho Peng Yoke (). "Gunpowder". In Selin, Helaine (ed.). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Springer. p.&#; ISBN&#;. Retrieved 30 July
  15. ^ abcdeChase
  16. ^Needham –94
  17. ^Al-Hassan, Ahmad Y. (). "Gunpowder Composition for Rockets and Cannon in Arabic Military Treatises in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries". ICON. International Committee for the History of Technology. 9: 1– ISSN&#; JSTOR&#;
  18. ^Broughton, George; Burris, David (). "War and Medicine: A Brief History of the Military's Contribution to Wound Care Through World War I". Advances in Wound Care: Volume 1. Mary Ann Liebert. pp.&#;3–7. doi/ (inactive 31 May ). ISBN&#;. CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of May (link)
  19. ^Books, Amber; Dickie, Iain; Jestice, Phyllis; Jorgensen, Christer; Rice, Rob S.; Dougherty, Martin J. (). Fighting Techniques of Naval Warfare: Strategy, Weapons, Commanders, and Ships: BC – Present. St. Martin's Press. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  20. ^ ab
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firearm

The 15 most high-tech guns in the world

AA12 shotgun
YouTube/FPSRussia
Militaries around the world are creating and testing futuristic guns that are like something you would see in a James Bond movie. 

From rifles that can shoot underwater to guns that require a fingerprint to fire, here are some of the most sophisticated weapons being developed right now.

The ADS is an assault rifle that is designed for use underwater. It's used by Russian special forces, and can fire rounds per minute at a range of up to 25 metres.

Underwater ADS amphibious rifle
Vitaly V. Kuzmin

The Armatix iP1 can't be used against you: it requires its fingerprint-enabled watch to be within 25cm of it to fire.

Armatix iP1 smart gun and watch
Wikimedia

TrackingPoint is an American company that produces rifles with precision-guided technology that calculates the range to a target and optimises the gun accordingly. Here's the $50, Bolt-Action TP rifle.

TrackingPoint sniper rifle
TrackingPoint

The Chiappa Rhino is a revolver that recoils straight back into your hand rather than upwards, making it more accurate.

Chiappa Rhino gun
Chiappa

9. The KRISS Vector is a submachine gun designed to reduce the barrel riding up after a shot by 95%, and backwards recoil by 60%.

KRISS Vector
KRISS

8. The FN Five-seven is a pistol famed for its ability to penetrate many types of body armour. It's so powerful, in fact, that US civilians can only buy it with sporting ammunition.

FN Five-seven gun
Wikimedia/ROG

7. The personnel halting and stimulation response ("PHASR") rifle was developed by the U.S. Department of Defense. It's non-lethal, and designed to blind targets.

PHASR rifle
Wikimedia/Sferrier

6. Accuracy International is a British company that produces extremely accurate rifles for armies and police forces. They're more accurate than normal guns because the action is securely bolted and insulated from the rest of the gun.

Sours: https://www.businessinsider.com/the-most-high-tech-guns-in-the-world
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New pistol with a built-in silencer debuts

silencerco silencer gun 2

A silencer manufacturer has unveiled an unusual new gun that's meant to be seen but not heard: a pistol with a built-in silencer.

The Maxim 9 is a pistol with a silencer integrated into the gun, according to SilencerCo, a silencer manufacturer in Utah. This is different from most silencers, which are separate, canister-shaped mufflers that are screwed onto the ends of gun barrels.

The Maxim 9 is a 9 mm semiautomatic handgun with a round magazine. The silencer gives it a distinct and futuristic look, like a weapon from a science fiction movie.

"The Maxim 9 is a duty pistol, short, quiet, reliable, durable and can use any [9 mm] ammo," said SilencerCo CEO Joshua Waldron.

The handgun-silencer combo is not unprecedented. According to the NRA, the Office of Strategic Services (the CIA's predecessor) used British-made pistols with built-in suppressors during World War II, and Sturm, Ruger (RGR)currently produces them.

But Waldron points that the Maxim 9 is a more efficient design than the old models, which were "highly specialized, and not accurate or reliable. They used special ammo and quite frankly were not widely adopted because they were ridiculous."

He also said that the Maxim 9 is a more powerful gun than the caliber silencer-handguns developed by Sturm, Ruger, which makes it better suited for "personal protection."

Related: Walmart to stop selling ARs and similar guns

The Maxim 9 could have market potential. Silencer sales are booming, despite tight restrictions, and prices ranging from $ to $2, According to the most recent figures from the ATF, the number of registered silencers jumped 38% year-over-year to , in February

Waldron says that silencers are popular with hunters and people who do target shooting who want to protect their hearing.

The Maxim 9 will go on sale next year. It will be subject to the same federal guidelines that apply to silencers -- which are more accurately called suppressors. They suppress the noise of a gun shot, though the shot is still quite loud. They do not silence guns completely, the way silencers do in the movies.

Suppressors are more rigorously regulated than most guns. The process of buying a gun usually takes minutes, but buying a silencer takes months.

Related: The shotgun silencer is not actually silent

Guns typically require a background check when purchased from a federally licensed dealer. The buyer provides photo ID at the gun shop and electronically submits a form to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The process often takes about 20 minutes.

But when buying a suppressor, or any gun that falls under the National Firearms Act including full automatic machine guns and sawed-off shotguns, the customer has to mail or fax photo and fingerprints to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives and pay a $ tax. Approval can take up to nine months.

Suppressors are also subject to state law. A few states ban them outright. But they're legal in 41 states, up from 37 four years ago.

Waldron said the growing popularity, and the gradual easing of state restrictions, is partly because of the industry's efforts to educate the public through an ad campaign called, "Yes, silencers are legal." The sales jump has prompted him to more than double his staff over the last year, to workers.

Does a shotgun silencer actually work?

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Maryland Shooters > The Arsenal > Handguns > Smallest most accurate handgun


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arbud

July 25th, , AM

What do you all think is the smallest most accurate handgun. Can be semi auto or revolver. Definitely in a self defense type of round. Thanks for your opinions guys


MikeTF

July 25th, , AM

For me (and the reason why I concealed carry this gun) the SIG P (P) is the smallest most accurate gun under all lighting conditions. I think that it has to do with the outstanding sights and the way the gun fits my hand. I can shoot this gun as accurately as I do my SIG P


Minuteman

July 25th, , AM

Hi. This is my area of specialty.

Most subcompact pistols (Backup Guns BUG, many call them) are surprisingly accurate. But hard to shoot because many of them are too small to grip as well, have a lot more recoil and poor sights. Recoil is relevant to accuracy because it takes longer to get back on target (fast&accurate), and recoil upset most shooters and affect their accuracy.

Guns, like cars do not all perform alike, even in the same make/model sometimes. So there is no universal answer to your question.

Some of my accuracy observations:

I find G26 more accurate than G19's; strange because G26 is slightly smaller than G19's.

Kahr subcompacts are very accurate, excellent sights as well.

Sig BUGs also have great sights and very accurate.

Some snub nose revolvers are surprisingly accurate, but most need upgraded sights and practice.


Minuteman

July 25th, , AM

I strongly agree with MikeTF (as usual), I'm just not happy with the manual external safety of these powerful and accurate little guns for defensive carry. I'll admit I do carry them from time to time for that purpose, but thanks to this forum, I have trained enough now with the platform and method of shooting I trust it with my life. But for a casual shooter, not willing to invest all the time/money to train with it; there are other guns that are almost as good, that don't require that extra step to shoot (and training is slightly easier). Under extreme stress, forgetting to flip off the safety could get you killed.


Minuteman

July 25th, , AM

Springfield XDs is another great option. Also the M&P Shield (the one without the manual safety).


CAS_Shooter

July 25th, , AM

Accurate for typical bad guy distance or accurate for 15 yard fun at the range? The basis for the interest makes a very big difference in the answer.


MikeTF

July 25th, , AM

I strongly agree with MikeTF (as usual), I'm just not happy with the manual external safety of these powerful and accurate little guns for defensive carry. I'll admit I do carry them from time to time for that purpose, but thanks to this forum, I have trained enough now with the platform and method of shooting I trust it with my life. But for a casual shooter, not willing to invest all the time/money to train with it; there are other guns that are almost as good, that don't require that extra step to shoot (and training is slightly easier). Under extreme stress, forgetting to flip off the safety could get you killed.Excellent points and I agree with you, it's (a /safety style handgun) not for everyone. I really like having tritium sights. What are your thoughts?


Blaster

July 25th, , AM

Accurate for typical bad guy distance or accurate for 15 yard fun at the range? The basis for the interest makes a very big difference in the answer.

This.

Any small gun can hit anywhere in a silhouette from yards easily.
Slow accurate fire at 25 yards is another thing. And unless it is mounted in a rest, I think any small gun fired from a human hand would yield probably the same accuracy results from hand to hand.
Not sure why someone would want to disappoint themselves by pretending a small pistol is a fine accuracy piece. But alas, some will chime in here about how they shoot quarter sized groups at yards with a North American Arms


MikeTF

July 25th, , AM

This.

Any small gun can hit anywhere in a silhouette from yards easily.
Slow accurate fire at 25 yards is another thing. And unless it is mounted in a rest, I think any small gun fired from a human hand would yield probably the same accuracy results from hand to hand.
Not sure why someone would want to disappoint themselves by pretending a small pistol is a fine accuracy piece. But alas, some will chime in here about how they shoot quarter sized groups at yards with a North American Arms Ain't that the truth!


ohen cepel

July 25th, , AM

I have found the CZ82 to be very accurate, in general the pistols with the barrel pinned into the frame are since it's one less point of possible movement.

Most small quality revolvers are accurate if you put them into a Ransom Rest, few people can shoot them well enough to see their potential though.


smokey

July 25th, , AM

hk p7 sounds like it fits the bill. The interesting thing about guns once you get small, is there's lots of choices with fixed barrels. That in itself should yield some better mechanical accuracy potential. The limiting factor of "in a self defensive type of round" keeps it up by 9mm or maybe (where ppk's and such come in).


smokey

July 25th, , AM

I have found the CZ82 to be very accurate, in general the pistols with the barrel pinned into the frame are since it's one less point of possible movement.

Most small quality revolvers are accurate if you put them into a Ransom Rest, few people can shoot them well enough to see their potential though.

you were quicker on the draw with that one. Got me while typing.


MikeTF

July 25th, , AM

I have a P64 too. It is very accurate, if I take the time line up the very tiny sights which are hard for my aging eyes to see during daylight. It is a C&R gun, cheap ($), small, and has the Makarov 9x18 round which is stronger than the I have concealed carried it.


pilotguy

July 25th, , AM

Hi. This is my area of specialty.



Some of my accuracy observations:

I find G26 more accurate than G19's; strange because G26 is slightly smaller than G19's.



I've seen this same thing with G27s vs G23s with a few people at work (myself included) before I retired.

I am not so sure that it is the inherent accuracy of the smaller gun being superior to the larger one, but that shooters tend to hold the smaller version differently. It almost looked like people were holding the G23s with more of a "death grip", while being a bit more relaxed with their grip of the G It could be that there is a bit less wobble with less forward weight, but there really isn't that much of a difference in the length of the G27 vs G23/G26 vs G

YMMV


TheRealJimDavis

July 25th, , AM

I run a kahr PM7 for ccw. It's extremely accurate. Due to a quality trigger and quality sights. (+training, shooting often, And quality ammo) that being said, no BUG is much fun to shoot. I had a ruger LCP that I could consistently ding 8x8 steel with at 50 yards, but the sights sucked. Esp at night. And departmental regs put the final nail in her coffin.
In summary, I agree with the others. It's mostly sights and triggers and you.
P.s. I disagree with many who talk about minute of badguy accuracy. I don't know what range or how much time a deadly force encounter will be. "Good enough" is not good enough for me.


j_h_smith

July 25th, , AM

I personally think that most handguns can shoot better than the human that is pulling the trigger. So my answer would be to find a handgun that feel good in your hands. Something that is comfortable. One that fits you, almost like a glove (pun intended).

Then buy a lot of ammo. Now comes the most important part. You must practice, constantly practice shooting this handgun. Once you feel like you can point it (some would say aim the firearm) with your eyes closed, then practice like you would be using the handgun. If this is a defensive weapon that will be carried on your body, practice without ammo, withdrawing the handgun from your holster times. Once you can do this as smoothly as possible, it's time to put everything together and find a range that will allow you to practice a tactical draw and firing of the handgun.

I guess what I'm saying is the handgun will out shoot the individual, so the handgun isn't usually the issue with accuracy.


reddobie0

July 25th, , AM

The one I'm carrying when SHTF! I can hit quarter size groups at yards with my Crosman. :lol2:


dreadpirate

July 25th, , AM

The Smith and Wesson model 64, with handle grip shown. The H&R is also very accurate but not very compact!

http://iphotobucket.com/albums/ww/dreadjavapirate/firearms/DSC__zpsgzemfx6v.jpg


54rndball

July 25th, , AM

S&W Model with 1 7/8" bbl. in Special is capable of putting all rounds in the black in slow fire at approx. 25 yds.


hogarth

July 25th, , AM

This is all obviously very subjective.

How small is small? A Glock 26, a mouse gun to some, is hopelessly blocky for others.

How accurate is accurate? Are we talking rapid, defensive fire at 7 yds in a 6 inch circle? Slow fire at 25 yds?

Just appearing on the scene and saying "small" and "accurate" is like saying you want to go to a "cheap" but "nice" restaurant. It has no meaning until you provide some parameters.


Jimbob

July 25th, , AM

I had a Beretta Tomcat that was insanely accurate, even with the terrible sights (few small hadguns have good sights).


Blaster

July 25th, , PM

I had a Beretta Tomcat that was insanely accurate, even with the terrible sights (few small hadguns have good sights).

Benefits of a fixed barrel.


Minuteman

July 25th, , PM

Several good points and reinforcements in this thread already.

When someone doesn't say their purpose or provide additional information, I usually go with what I think is most common or what I like most. So in this case, I'm guessing the OP is innocently asking of all the popular sub-compact handguns carried and used for self-defense, which of those are more accurate. I think this is a very fair and relative question, because although we can all agree that these tiny guns (almost all will be 9mm, , ), they are generally ok if they can shoot a pie plate (8" circle) with 5 shots in 5 seconds at 5 yards. However, what if there is the need to take a slow aimed shot out to yards, or the only shot you have is a fist sized body part at 7 yards, can you and your BUG gun do it?

So I can't predict you, but assuming you have the training and can perform, the guns I mentioned as relatively accurate are up to the task.

I haven't checked in years, is it still true that the typical 'shooting' happens at 7 yards or closer? If so, do 50% of your training at 7 yards, 25% closer, 25% further. And don't forget you should be doing 90% of your training not shooting a real gun on a range. Let me put that differently, 10% should be on a range shooting your actual gun with real (carry) ammo maintaining familiarity with how to manipulate it, fix malfunctions and knowing how quickly you can string together accurate shots with real recoil. The other 90% of your handgun training should be anything else, like: dry-fire, air-soft, force-on-force (tactics), laser, retention, Simulations/scenario based training, pellet, etc.

Buy an XDs in 9mm and be done with it. the sights are fiberoptic, the trigger is good, the gun is plenty compact; and yes, 9mm is better than and all things considered. :)

XDs in

http://www.ccsofirearms.com/assets/images/spxdss_1.jpg


Naptown34

July 25th, , PM

My Ruger LCP hits "exactly" where it's aimed.


BradMacc82

July 25th, , PM

But alas, some will chime in here about how they shoot quarter sized groups at yards with a North American Arms

I can hit a 50 yard wide, 15 yard high berm at yards with my acp. Most of the time


montoya32

July 25th, , PM

What do you all think is the smallest most accurate handgun. Can be semi auto or revolver. Definitely in a self defense type of round. Thanks for your opinions guys

What do you mean by "accurate"? Most small frame handguns/pistols are only used for yrd distances. You're not bullseye shooting with a subcompact. Most any modern weapon you get, coupled with QUALITY AMMO, will do just fine.


miles71

July 25th, , PM

The one you shoot best

:)
TD


Boss94

July 25th, , PM

hk p7 sounds like it fits the bill. The interesting thing about guns once you get small, is there's lots of choices with fixed barrels. That in itself should yield some better mechanical accuracy potential. The limiting factor of "in a self defensive type of round" keeps it up by 9mm or maybe (where ppk's and such come in).

The P7 is a Phenomenal gun !!!! I carried 1 for about 7 years . And accurate well beyond what I thought it could shoot! I wish I had never sold it as there a fortune now :-(


Blaster

July 25th, , PM

My Ruger LCP hits "exactly" where it's aimed.

This is a true statement of any and every gun that is ever fired. Not just a crappy LCP :D


Blaster

July 25th, , PM

The P7 is a fanominal gun !!!! I carried 1 for about 7 years . And accurate well beyond what I thought it could shoot! I wish I had never sold it as there a fortune now :-(

Phenomenal


Gryphon

July 25th, , PM

Grasshopper listen well to Minuteman. The is excellent choice , if you are trained to drop the safety everytime. It is an accurate powerhouse in a small package. The XDs is a little bigger, very accurate, and no manual safeties. I held a G43 today, and while not a Glock Fanboy it was very slim. If it shoots well, even though late to the market it might be an option. Go hold them and feel them. Look down the sights. Pull the trigger if they will let you dry fire.


Naptown34

July 25th, , PM

This is a true statement of any and every gun that is ever fired. Not just a crappy LCP :D


You think ?


Bafflingbs

July 25th, , PM

P is a freaking lazer! The PPK ain't no slouch either. But for accuracy, the P can't be touched, period.


Bafflingbs

July 25th, , PM

:rofl:I can hit a 50 yard wide, 15 yard high berm at yards with my acp. Most of the time


protegeV

July 25th, , PM

Looking for something to take to the movies? :innocent0


Baccusboy

July 25th, , PM

This is all obviously very subjective.

How small is small? A Glock 26, a mouse gun to some, is hopelessly blocky for others.

How accurate is accurate? Are we talking rapid, defensive fire at 7 yds in a 6 inch circle? Slow fire at 25 yds?

Just appearing on the scene and saying "small" and "accurate" is like saying you want to go to a "cheap" but "nice" restaurant. It has no meaning until you provide some parameters.

I'll say that the Glock 26's sure have dropped in price online in Iowa, after the thinner Glock's came out. I'm seeing them for $ used, where people used to want $ to $ used.


MikeTF

July 25th, , PM

Looking for something to take to the movies? :innocent0Trouble maker! (OK that was funny. I LOLed)


cantstop

July 25th, , PM

In general, I find my guns with a longer barrel are easier to put on target and return to target.

My LCP has a laser that really helps in low lighting, like an indoor range. The LCP's long trigger pull makes it tough to get out accurate shots faster than every 5 seconds or so.


Magnumite

July 25th, , PM

With others, defining just how accurate a firearm (in this case a small CCW) is lends credibility to its accuracy.

For a few years in the firearm mags it seemed the accuracy testing of handguns fell out of vogue. Now it is coming back because buyers want to know what they are getting. 5 shots in an 8" plate at 5 yards in 5 seconds doesn't define the accuracy of the pistol, just what can be done to a minimum standard. One can hit an 8" plate at 5 yards with itvirtually all decent guns will do that. I would not want to take a shot at a fist sized area at 7 yards mentioned earlier (not a discussion of tactics) with that gun not knowing more of its inherent accuracy.

The smallest frame most accurate handguns I have ever fired are a 4" J frame M63 S&W. That gun shoots into 2" at 25 yards with known good grouping ammo for that gun. Also a 2 3/4" Security Six About the same or better accuracy from that revolver with magnum ammo. A Chief's Special S&W shot into 3" at 25 yards. That to me is usable for more precision shooting.

An LCR I have, nice revolver, I like it at 15 yards groups measuring over 3" isn't very confidence inspiring. Granted, I've only used two loads, both lead. I won't be taking head shots at 25 yards with it. 7 to 10 yardsyeah. I've fired a couple LCP/KelTec framed guns they impressed me as having the same accuracy.

An accuracy statement typically needs to made with some type of objective data to have relevant value.


mopar92

July 26th, , AM

A Glock subcompact will be more accurate than a Glock 17 pretty much any day that ends in y. Barrel harmonics (shorter barrels are stiffer and resist movement and such), less frame flex, and different recoil system that unlocks a hair later than the fullsize mean it is more mechanically accurate.

Ease of use is a different story. Hand size, experience, hand strength, and countless other variables will show more effect with a smaller gun. Longer pistol means longer sight radius and faster recoil control due to larger weight.

Course everything boils down once again to training and practicality. I fired 6 shots (prone) out of a Colt Detective Special at yards (12" metal swinger) and got 4 COM hits. Could I do it from the holster and timed? F NO ( OK maybe if ya had a sundial). Was a pleasant suprise. It's not difficult just more exacting.

Try it sometime its fun.


Blaster

July 26th, , AM

A Glock subcompact will be more accurate than a Glock 17 pretty much any day that ends in y.

No it won't.


lsw

July 26th, , AM

Benefits of a fixed barrel.

The Tomcat has a tip-up barrel, pivoting at the front of the frame.


lsw

July 26th, , AM

P is a freaking lazer! The PPK ain't no slouch either. But for accuracy, the P can't be touched, period.

My P64 is the same, first time I fired it at 25 yards the group as I recall was only a few inches. Too bad that it recoils so hard that after the first mag is gone, you just don't want to shoot it anymore!


Blaster

July 26th, , AM

The Tomcat has a tip-up barrel, pivoting at the front of the frame.

Yes, but it doesn't move when shot. That's the point.


Bob A

July 26th, , AM

The P7 is a Phenomenal gun !!!! I carried 1 for about 7 years . And accurate well beyond what I thought it could shoot! I wish I had never sold it as there a fortune now :-(

Yeah, that's why I'd not carry it for self-defense; I couldn't afford a replacement. Even the Grade C examples that were going for bucks are into four figures.

Not a range gun, just a superbly designed incredibly accurate all-steel example of serious German engineering. I can't believe my Dad's generation was able to beat them; thank God Hitler thought he could win a two-front war.


rico

July 26th, , AM

Yes, but it doesn't move when shot. That's the point.

Bingo. Also good for people with bad hand strength as you don't need to rack the slide to charge it.


rico

July 26th, , AM

Not the lightest or most compact but my P7M8 is the most accurate hand gun I own.


Turtle Man

July 26th, , AM

My Ruger LCP hits "exactly" where it's aimed.

I can say the same of mine.


DC-W

July 26th, , AM

I once shot a thumbtack off of a thimble from a 5th story balcony that was a mile away with my G

/true story


j_h_smith

July 26th, , AM

I once shot a thumbtack off of a thimble from a 5th story balcony that was a mile away with my G

/true story

/I saw it. /I was there.


Biggfoot44

July 26th, , AM

Parameters , we need parameters ! And the weighting thereof.

Could refer to : Accuraccy per se. Meaning 25yd group size , slow fire , good lighting , braced or rested shooting position. Or could mean ability to make first shot hits , reasonably rapidly , in the user's hand(s) , in variable conditions.

Smallest ? Could mean : What is smallest gun that is capable of shooting a or or ( or whatever ) inch group @ 25yds . OR Micro-size could be a fixed requirement , and the OP could be looking for microgun with a degree of practical accuraccy.

Three or more different discussions.

Along Brad's theme , in a recent thread I started , I spoke about my experience with an Astra Firecat , and how it had practical accuracy beyond anything I seen or believed possable with a 25acp ( min of soda cam @ 7yds ).

Along Mopar's theme, as a class , small frame snub revolvers have just the same accuraccy *potential* as full size revolvers. That's not to say making use of the potential is easy . * To Me * , the sweet spot are medimum frame snub revolvers. Much easier to shoot to full potential. Think 2in K Frame up to in Speed/ Security Six. SP only has a small size penality.

"Small" major cal semiautos are a slippery slope trying to define what is subcompact , compact, and small-ish Service size.

I'm a G26/27 hater , because they are a bad fit *for me* . But I can't over look the huge number of people who shoot then substantially similarily to G17/22 . I won't go so far as to say they're "better" , but they probably have less size penality thn just about any other comparble product lineup. ( XXXL hands still should avoid.)


Uncle Duke

July 26th, , AM

Where to start with OP's question
Compromises come to mind. Numerous compromises. That's with any and all guns. Pros and cons for each, with far too many to list. There's good and good enough. Question becomes for what number one ranked scenario? There's powerful and powerful enough. Concealable or tiny concealable. Accurate or accurate enough. Light or light enough. For ME, only because of MY priorities and what I'll give up to gain something I rank higher, there's heavy or heavy enough. Personal highest ranking would be reliable or reliable enough. Betting your life on it, or betting on your ability to hit a soda can at 25 yards are entirely different animals.

Interesting question though. Come to think of it, I guess I'd suggest that I can't think of a more personal choice, except for maybe picking a wife.


Topher

July 26th, , AM

I have a Glock Glock will list the 30 as a subcompact acp.
That gun will match in accuracy MOST of the full size guns I own.


Hit and Run

July 26th, , AM

Springfield XDs is another great option. Also the M&P Shield (the one without the manual safety).

Another XDs fan.


Tomfowl

July 26th, , AM

I have the same problem many people have. On the internet, I can shoot one inch groups at 50 yards all day long with any handgun. However, at the shooting range my groups open up considerably.


JOESTEELER

July 26th, , AM

There was a great article in guns and ammo about a month ago . Three shooters ten small weapons straight out of the box . Really well written piece .If you find the article the results will surprise you. I won't give it away. I carry a because like is to short to carry a ugly gun.


DC-W

July 26th, , AM

/I saw it. /I was there.


Remember the drinks with Brian Williams afterwards?

/good times


j_h_smith

July 26th, , AM

Remember the drinks with Brian Williams afterwards?

/good times


Remember, he picked up the tab.

/great guy.


Biggfoot44

July 26th, , PM

Well since Uncle Duke started advice :

1. Practical Accuraccy in your hands to be able to make reasonably quick hits out to at least 15yds ( bonus for 25yds).

2. Reasonably powerful ( bonus for lenty powerful enough ).

3. Small enough , but still able to have enough grip for good control.

4. Light enough.

Notice , capacity delibertly not mentioned , but I will specify a reload ( two if only one gun carried).


teratos

July 26th, , PM

My LCP is more accurate than I expected at 7 yards. Even with the crappy sights and long trigger pull, I shoot it pretty well.


DC-W

July 26th, , PM

Remember, he picked up the tab.

/great guy.

:lollollollol2:


Semper Noctem

July 26th, , PM

The M&P9c is about as small as I go, and it's an accurate little weapon.


Magnumite

July 26th, , PM

"1. Practical Accuraccy in your hands to be able to make reasonably quick hits out to at least 15yds ( bonus for 25yds)."

Define practical accuracy. Numbers to group size would clarify

What is a reasonable hit at 15 yards (effective target size)

How would you determine a practical accuracy shortcoming in a small handgun?

How does the practical accuracy of a Les Baer Premier Ii compare to the practical accuracy of an M&P 9?

Not being argumentative here, but what I interpret is anything one could hit with a baseball would suffice from a practical accuracy perspective. I see nothing mentioned where I could determine if pistol A is more or less accirate than pistol B.


Gryphon

July 26th, , PM

Don't forget semi versus revolver :innocent0


Mark75H

July 26th, , PM

Practical accuracy is generally defined as the 9 inch pie plate simulating the critical part of the thoracic cavity.


Magnumite

July 26th, , PM

That's cool. Thanks. Now, we know what practical accuracy actually is.

Question now is how would that define one pistol's accuracy over that of another? Defines a 'minimum' standard (maximum value). But it wouldn't help the OP chose a small pistol based on its inherent accuracy.


Biggfoot44

July 27th, , AM

Ok , I was trying to not accidently stir up a distracting side controversy about the exact size of "suitable accuracy. But yes the proverbial inch paper plate is a useful neighborhood. ( I always used the head area of the various more or less life size silouhete targets. 3x5 index cards , soda cans , sheet of typing paper , sheet of typing paper folded in half , and more have adherents for specific drills .)

I'm not Magnumite , nor any other individual other than me. I have no way of knowing if you can make faster first shot hits from the leather upon an 8in paper plate @ 15yd with a Les Baer or an M&P 9c ? ( Target and distance chosen as example , but not magical or exclusive to other options .) I know that I could do that better with a K Frame , than either of the above choices.

First shot hits are more important than ammo dumps.


RoadDawg

July 27th, , AM

1) Size = depends upon the body shape and mass of the carrier. I can conceal a Glock 17 or 22 or a full size on my side without much more than cover Some guys around here could carry a DE and many would be hard pressed to see it if they weren't told to look for it. Still others could not hide an LCP or NAA LR revolver in the clothes they choose to wear.

2) Accuracy = depends on ones ability to find the target under stress and hit it with the lead that they send down range. TRAINING TRAINING TRAINING Learn which firearms suit you in this area FIRST. Choose several and fire them from several positions. Sitting, standing, prone, kneeling etc Decide which ones YOU are most accurate with. This varies with the individual shooter.

Now take the list from number 2 and choose which ones fit the best into number 1. Once you've accomplished that You will have obtained a list of the "smallest most accurate" firearms for YOU.

Now, determine from that list Which one is the most reliable? Size and accuracy don't mean diddly squat if it's not dependable.

You now have a short list to choose from and it will depend on price, style and availability as to which one you end up with.

Don't let the Internet choose your sidearm Be meticulous and choose properly like your life depends on it.

Bon jour


Magnumite

July 27th, , AM

Bon jour Nice post. :thumbsup:

I think the thread has delineated into two general themes.

1.) bench/bag/prone rested, measurable group shooting indicating the actual mechanical accuracy of the pistol. The OP queried this and very little has been indicated here.;

2.) the shootability of the pistol to make hits within a given area in a short time constraint. This is a relative assessment with a pass/fail evaluation of a given handgun. Rather large percentage of posts to this effect. Understandable given the class handgun queried.

The second evaluation is application, the first to what distance or degree can the application be utilized. One poster indicated choosing a small handgun for 25 yard shooting isn't realistic in most respects. Yet there are times when that may be the application (can only afford one gun). Adjustment to the selection requirements may be needed then, but knowing the actual mechanical accuracy potential would allow for selection of a handgun the buyer would be happy with.


smokey

July 27th, , AM

but seriouslyhkp7 for the win
xag_vbxA

great gun. Why HK isn't making this, I have no clue. It makes about as much sense as colt stopping production of the snake guns.


Magnumite

July 27th, , AM

Seenow I have to google hkp7. Squeeze cocker?

Edit: it is


RoadDawg

July 27th, , PM

Seenow I have to google hkp7. Squeeze cocker?

Edit: it is

My cousin carried one of those for over twenty years It was the issued sidearm of the NJSP. He HATED that gun


protegeV

July 27th, , PM

Seenow I have to google hkp7. Squeeze cocker?

Edit: it is

had to google it too. strange :shocking:


python

July 30th, , PM

+1 for the H&K, P7M8. Inherently, the most accurate "small" pistol I have ever fired. It is also one of the heaviest guns for its size.


st

July 31st, , AM

had to google it too. strange :shocking:

An inherently safe design that is unobtrusive. What's not to like?


BenL

July 31st, , PM

but seriouslyhkp7 for the win
xag_vbxA

great gun. Why HK isn't making this, I have no clue. It makes about as much sense as colt stopping production of the snake guns.

Too bad they stopped making them. I keep waiting for them to come back into production; especially when they did a anniversary edition in ; I was sure they were coming back.


Long1MD

July 31st, , PM

I'm fond of the ruger LCP for summer carry and the LC9s pro for regular carry. For winter I prefer the ruger lcr federal hydra shoks . Honestly these are not my favorite pistols, just my favorite carry pistols


Long1MD

July 31st, , PM

Anyone got a Seecamp ?


Minuteman

July 31st, , PM

but seriouslyhkp7 for the win
xag_vbxA

great gun. Why HK isn't making this, I have no clue. It makes about as much sense as colt stopping production of the snake guns.

Yes, all kidding aside, that might be the ultimate 'duty' or 'ccw' handgun.

I once attended a training course (mostly pistols), and one gentleman showed up with four (4) of them in a case. I'm not kidding, he had two of each (7 & 13), he tried to play it very nonchalant, but everyone knew he was money bags, and serious collector. I was impressed that he attended the same training I was sent to for free, and it wasn't a gentleman's course, it was fairly tough and longer than I expected.

He used all of his guns, rotating through them, I was impressed.


boundlessdyad

July 31st, , PM

Anyone got a Seecamp ?
I despise 's but it is a nice looking little gun

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RoadDawg

July 31st, , PM

I despise 's but it is a nice looking little gun


Did a bite you or something? :lol2:


fidelity

July 31st, , PM

I despise 's but it is a nice looking little gun



Huh, made me look. I think that I want one. Smallest pistol that I've seen, and the online rep seems ok.


Minuteman

July 31st, , PM

Anyone got a Seecamp ?

Not I, but I'll look into it (again).

That is crazy small, and in ; wowzers.

http://i2.photobucket.com/albums/y6/los/MySeecampNkimber2.jpg

I despise 's but it is a nice looking little gun

I think you are right.


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/LWSjpg


boundlessdyad

July 31st, , PM

Did a bite you or something? :lol2:
LOL, no I owned one once (a ), hated it. Will never buy another.

http://www.gunsamerica.com//GRENDEL-PEXCELLENT-W-BOX-EXTRA-MA.htm

BTW that Seecamp comes in acp too I believe. It is even smaller.

http://www.seecamp.com/products.htm

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rico

August 1st, , AM

but seriouslyhkp7 for the win
xag_vbxA

great gun. Why HK isn't making this, I have no clue. It makes about as much sense as colt stopping production of the snake guns.

My HK P7M8 and PSP are probably the most accurate, comfortable to shoot and safe guns I own. Wish I could afford the M On the downside, they do heat up quickly and I've found no one that can work on them. Also slim but heavy as they are all steel.


rico

August 1st, , AM

Can't ad any experience to this but have a couple of questions. Recently handled a S&W Body Guard Liked the fact it is hammer fired, would feel safe putting this in a pocket. Also a S&W Shield with a NY Heavy trigger. Again, I'd feel safe pocketing this one. What are the opinions of owners of the Body Guard and Shield?


Biggfoot44

August 1st, , AM

The P7 has lots of sterling qualities. Downsides include the manual of arms is signifigently different from normal pistols, and not a good one to switch back and forth.

Was discontinued because of low sales and high production cost.


NeutronBlu

August 1st, , AM

Walther PPK. Accurate in the right handslike James Bond!


boundlessdyad

August 1st, , AM

Can't ad any experience to this but have a couple of questions. Recently handled a S&W Body Guard Liked the fact it is hammer fired, would feel safe putting this in a pocket. Also a S&W Shield with a NY Heavy trigger. Again, I'd feel safe pocketing this one. What are the opinions of owners of the Body Guard and Shield?
Likely getting rid of the Shield when I can take possession of my new G I am not a fan of the Shield, don't like the trigger, grip, and it doesn't point well for me. I have been a Glock guy for as long as I have owned guns. YMMV

In defense of the Shield it is small and light and works great as a BUG in an ankle holster.

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rbird

August 1st, , AM

I once shot a thumbtack off of a thimble from a 5th story balcony that was a mile away with my G

/true story


I'm Joe Isuzu and you can take my word for it


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st

August 1st, , AM

The P7 has lots of sterling qualities. Downsides include the manual of arms is signifigently different from normal pistols, and not a good one to switch back and forth.

Was discontinued because of low sales and high production cost.

Doesn't anybody find this odd regarding the P Also an expensive gun with limited sales, yet Sig Sauer somehow finds a way to still produce it today.

Also it really does seem to have the safest non obtrusive design to fire with the squeeze cocking mechanism.


DC-W

August 1st, , AM

but seriouslyhkp7 for the win
xag_vbxA

great gun. Why HK isn't making this, I have no clue. It makes about as much sense as colt stopping production of the snake guns.
$ and up, wow!


st

August 1st, , AM

$ and up, wow!

Use to be around half of that just a few years ago.


Long1MD

August 1st, , PM

Anyone know of an IP that has a Seecamp I can fondle?


brentona

August 2nd, , AM

Gotta give it to my cz82

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squaregrouper

August 3rd, , AM

I'm stating this solely for the tiny factor/pocket gun
Haters can hate, but my Kel Tec PF9 has no problems hitting a paper plate from 7yds at 1 second intervals.
Is it accurate compared to my Walther PP or CZ82? No.
Is it accurate enough to hit 1 minute of bad guy? Yes.
Does it only weigh oz fully loaded? Yup.

I did the "fluff and buff" after purchase. I have since fired ~ rounds with zero issues. The down side is they kick like a mule.
These little things are highly underrated.


jimbobborg

August 3rd, , AM

I'm stating this solely for the tiny factor/pocket gun
Haters can hate, but my Kel Tec PF9 has no problems hitting a paper plate from 7yds at 1 second intervals.
Is it accurate compared to my Walther PP or CZ82? No.
Is it accurate enough to hit 1 minute of bad guy? Yes.
Does it only weigh oz fully loaded? Yup.

I did the "fluff and buff" after purchase. I have since fired ~ rounds with zero issues. The down side is they kick like a mule.
These little things are highly underrated.

I did not do the "fluff and buff" on my PF9, I just ran a couple hundred painful rounds through it :lol: I posted a target on another thread, the group at 5 yards was smaller than the gun, 1 round per second. Not a target gun, but good accuracy for the sights.


squaregrouper

August 3rd, , PM

I did not do the "fluff and buff" on my PF9, I just ran a couple hundred painful rounds through it :lol: I posted a target on another thread, the group at 5 yards was smaller than the gun, 1 round per second. Not a target gun, but good accuracy for the sights.

I rarely shoot more than a box through mine per trip. We agree that the recoil is the biggest "flaw" of the pistol.
IMO, it is a very good summertime concealment pistol.


RoadDawg

August 3rd, , PM

Very small and quite accurate I am considering selling my Ruger LCP with CT Laser rounds down the pipe Anyone interested? I have not quite made up my mind on it yet :shrug:


Boss94

August 3rd, , PM

$ and up, wow!

Try looking them up now. There 2k+ and up for a P7m13 . Still a amazing handgun !!!


fred

August 6th, , PM

Gotta give it to my cz82

Although the bore's pristine, the one I've got is horribly inaccurate beyond, say, 20'. And the recoil, which's funneled directly into the trigger, also kills my [trigger] finger. I love the '82's design, but it definitely doesn't rank well on my accuracy/pleasure scales.


Blaster

August 6th, , PM

No one has mentioned a MAK yet.


Long1MD

August 6th, , PM

Any votes on the best 9mm pocket pistol?


fidelity

August 6th, , PM

No one has mentioned a MAK yet.

Have only had a few months experience with them, but really love Bulgarian Makarovs (and I'm sure that I would have the same impression of Easy German or Russian made ones - just never had the chance to try them). I got a couple from different surplus websites, thinking I might sell the one that looked more worn, but have been reconsidering. More likely to give up my CZ, which hasn't been a good fit for me. Although the Makarov sights are hard to pick up sometimes, the pistol points very naturally for me and is easy to get on target and rapidly hit follow up shots in a tight area. Tempted to carry it (where permitted).


T'Challa

August 6th, , PM

My vote goes to the S&W bodyguard.

5Fwb-9aYDa0


Blaster

August 6th, , PM

Have only had a few months experience with them, but really love Bulgarian Makarovs (and I'm sure that I would have the same impression of Easy German or Russian made ones - just never had the chance to try them). I got a couple from different surplus websites, thinking I might sell the one that looked more worn, but have been reconsidering. More likely to give up my CZ, which hasn't been a good fit for me. Although the Makarov sights are hard to pick up sometimes, the pistol points very naturally for me and is easy to get on target and rapidly hit follow up shots in a tight area. Tempted to carry it (where permitted).

You'll see mine Saturday. That's what I am picking up on the lil trip up yonder. Lil cerakote job done.


fidelity

August 6th, , PM

Very cool. Need a Commie bloc issued holster? I have extras that I don't need - was comparing the Russian, East German, and Belgian options. Not functional (OWB, would take forever to access), just for the drawer.


Blaster

August 6th, , PM

Very cool. Need a Commie bloc issued holster? I have extras that I don't need - was comparing the Russian, East German, and Belgian options. Not functional (OWB, would take forever to access), just for the drawer.

Funny, I was just looking at those holsters online.


fidelity

August 6th, , PM

Wow, nice cerakoting. Iconic shape, but looks like gun art. Will be interested to see in person. :thumbsup:


st

August 6th, , PM

Any votes on the best 9mm pocket pistol?

Sig


MikeTF

August 6th, , PM

Sig +1 excellent sights: day and night


brentona

August 7th, , AM

My east German mak is a fairly good shooter to me, just never been too keen on 6 o'clock holds

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Long1MD

August 10th, , PM

Okyou guys suck!this is a pic of my new Seecamp compared to a business card. Seems that I had one too many drinks and bought this one after reading this thread.


MikeTF

August 10th, , PM

Very nice! I want to see one in person!


Long1MD

August 10th, , PM

Don't have it in my possession yet, pick up next week. It's a pocket pistol that's so small you'll have no excuse to leave home without something.


fidelity

August 10th, , PM

Okyou guys suck!this is a pic of my new Seecamp compared to a business card. Seems that I had one too many drinks and bought this one after reading this thread.
Beautiful gun. :thumbsup:


Long1MD

August 10th, , PM

Thanks, can't wait to get it to the range. Same guy on GB was offering a custom holster with the Seecamp logo on it for cheaper than I could buy it for direct, so I got that also. Holster is made by Maco


Long1MD

August 10th, , PM

SorryMeco I think it is


Long1MD

August 21st, , PM

My newest addition. Smallest, but quite a handful at the range!! LWS


Ironnewt

August 22nd, , AM

a S&W M with a 3 inch bull barrel


BigT5g

August 22nd, , AM

My BUG is a Glock 42, and it is shockingly accurate. Definitely need to replace the factory sights though.


boundlessdyad

August 22nd, , AM

Loving my Glock 43 as a BUG. Got my DeSantis Diehard ankle holster yesterday. Barely know it is there. Got to get it to the range soon.

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Boss94

August 22nd, , PM

I like the look of the new Springfield XD mod 2 compacts.


T'Challa

August 31st, , AM

My newest addition. Smallest, but quite a handful at the range!! LWS

:thumbsup:

Pocket carry is the best!


Long1MD

September 3rd, , PM

Rohrbaugh RS9 inbound


campns

September 3rd, , PM

I have a Taurus PT Slim, it's a single stack 9mm and once you get used to the trigger it actually has some good pluses.

G&A did an article that did a round test with many of the pistols you all are talking about.

http://www.gunsandammo.com/handguns/compacts/single-stack-9mm-shootout/

I have had mine for about 4 years and a IWB holster that is pretty damn comfortable and being under an inch thick it doesn't print much at all. finding extra mags is a different story.


Dino

September 7th, , PM

Colt Vest Pocket, made in
Over years old, and surprisingly accurate.

http://iphotobucket.com/albums/a/DinoBonanno/Colt6.jpg (http://sphotobucket.com/user/DinoBonanno/media/Colt6.jpg.html)


Mark75H

September 7th, , PM

Colt Vest Pocket, made in
Over years old, and surprisingly accurate.



I have the FN version, made in I say "How many times do you want me to shoot you in the eye?"


fidelity

September 7th, , PM

Colt Vest Pocket, made in
Over years old, and surprisingly accurate.

http://iphotobucket.com/albums/a/DinoBonanno/Colt6.jpg (http://sphotobucket.com/user/DinoBonanno/media/Colt6.jpg.html)

I have the FN version, made in I say "How many times do you want me to shoot you in the eye?"

Too funny - but I still find the guns appealing (having seen the Vest Pocket for the first time in the prior post). Incredibly small yr old 6-shooters. Had to look up the caliber - ACP.


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Accurate handgun 2015 most

Seven Serious Concealed-Carry Handguns

There are so many concealed-carry handguns to choose from for personal defense, that knowing how to choose the best concealed carry gun can seem about as difficult as choosing a significant other. Not to worry; the key to a good match is to first narrow the pool to the very best concealed pistol, semiauto, or revolver, and that’s just what we’ve done below.

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Read Next: The Beginner’s Guide to Concealed Carry

Browning Black Label

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Ruger Magnum LCR

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Read Next: The 25 Best Handguns Ever

Smith & Wesson M&P Shield

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Glock G19X

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Read Next: Do You Carry a Handgun While Bowhunting?

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Sours: https://www.fieldandstream.com/best-concealed-carry-handguns/
Top 5 Best Shooting Pistols

The Firing Line Forums > Hogan's Alley > Handguns: General Handgun Forum > Most accurate handgun


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Quincy

February 13, , PM

I know this is a bit of an esoteric question, but I’m just curious, what would generally be thought of as the most accurate handgun at 25 yards? Normal handgun mind you, not a T/C Contender or Remington bolt. I suspect the Freedom arms revolvers, would a tuned compete? And what would you expect, minus the human factor. Say in a Ransom Rest, ½” groups at 25 yard, better, worse? Just wondering what your thoughts are. Thanks.


MrBorland

February 13, , PM

what would generally be thought of as the most accurate handgun at 25 yards?I suspect the Freedom arms revolvers, would a tuned compete?

As far as platforms, revolvers and semi-autos each have their compromises, but generally, revolvers get a slight nod for out-of-the box accuracy. s can be tuned to match-grade accuracy, but to keep the comparison fair, so can revolvers, and often with less effort.

Among revolvers, I suspect the shorter double action hammer travel would help accuracy, but few are as good with a DA trigger.

I've never shot one, but FA revolvers have a reputation for excellent accuracy, due, in part, to the fact that their chambers are lined-bored with the barrel.

And what would you expect, minus the human factor. Say in a Ransom Rest, ½” groups at 25 yard, better, worse? Just wondering what your thoughts are.

A match-grade handgun ought to be able to clean the x-ring of an NRA bullseye target, which is about " at 25 yards and " at 50 yards. This is about what I've always felt an expect an in-spec, but otherwise factory stock S&W revolver to be able to deliver with match ammo. A ought to be able to deliver this with some good tuning. Given their reputation (and price), I'd certainly expect a FA revolver to deliver at least this level of accuracy.

If you're looking for an accurate semi-auto, do some research into CZs as well.


Guv

February 13, , PM

Ruger MkII Bull barrel.


Snyper

February 13, , PM

In a 22, a Ruger MKII or III

In a centerfire, a Dan Wesson with interchangeable barrels


UncleEd

February 13, , PM

In past Ransom Rest testing of revolvers, the gunzines have found that the Dan Wessons with their unique barrel lockup tend to shade both the Python and the Smith The Ruger GP also is no slouch and probably in a category with the Smiths and Colts.

IIRC, the gunzine tests were pushed to yards and the result differences were in fractions of an inch.

Of course, with any handgun, you sometimes have to make sure you find the right combination of bullet design, consistent bullet weight and powder load which matches the twist of the barrels.


bbqncigars

February 13, , PM

I would think that one of the bullseye competition handguns would be the most accurate offhand. As to whether center or rim fire would rule at that distance, it would be fun to find out.


AustinTX

February 13, , PM

The best revolvers will beat the best locked-breech semi-autos. Not sure about rimfire semi-autos versus revolvers, but a rimfire semi-auto will beat any other kind of semi-auto. Many regard the Feinwerkbau AW93 as the finest rimfire semi-auto target pistol in the world. The most accurate American rimfire semi-auto target pistol is the S&W Model 41, but most of us mere mortals probably can't see any difference in accuracy between it and cheaper options, like the Rugers.

The platform gets the most attention from the lion's share of the top gunsmiths in the U.S. (and, by extension, the world), but it's certainly not the only platform that can be tuned for bullseye competition-level accuracy. David Sams built Beretta 92s for the Army Marksmanship Unit (and still builds them for private buyers) that produce sub" shot groups at 50 yards. Shooters of AMU Berettas hold a number of records at Camp Perry. The best test target among my Swiss Ps is from a P that shot a ~" six-shot group at 50 meters ( yards), which would be ~" at 50 yards (and which is still not as statistically impressive as a " ten-shot group at 50 yards).

I haven't scoped my Freedom Arms revolver, so I haven't come anywhere near its intrinsic accuracy at long distances, but I remember reading about people achieving ~1-inch five-shot groups at yards. Perhaps it can do better. I imagine that Korth revolvers fare pretty well too. Same with the Manurhin MR


James K

February 13, , PM

If the only criterion is "handgun", the so-called "free pistols" will beat every other gun, hands down. There is no compromise, no attempt to make a plinker or a self defense pistol; they are made for one purpose and one purpose only, to hit a small target when fired by the finest shooters in the world. For any other purpose, they are useless, but in that field, nothing else can touch them.

Jim


Hammerhead

February 14, , AM

Best groups ever in my hands?
Freedom Arms model 97
HK USP Elite (6") 9mm
S&W
Les Baer P-II in Super

I would imagine any of the above would do under an inch in a Ransom rest, they all did close to that over sand bags at one point or another.


JohnKSa

February 14, , AM

A well-made fixed barrel autopistol is hard to beat for accuracy.


salvadore

February 14, , AM

The most accurate handgun I have owned was a Brazilian S&W () with a
lightly pitted barrel. With hard cast or jacketed bullets it is a one holer. Full disclosure, that was 20+ years ago when I could still see.


psyfly

February 14, , AM

Hamden-made High Standard could'a been a contender back when. Haven't heard much about current production, but my early Citation is the most accurate handgun I've ever held. To include a Baikal.


saleen

February 15, , AM

The new Texas made High Standards are very accurate. I love the Hamden guns but the new barrels are just better. Well under 1" @ 50 yards. A free pistol is more accurate but it is not what I would call normal.

http://iphotobucket.com/albums/tt98/saleen/Targets/TrophyTgtSK.jpg


Drm50

February 15, , PM

There is no doubt as JamesK posted, Free style target pistols are by far the most
accurate pistols made. I have owned a couple. A 22 and a 32wc. They are made
to carry in case to range not holstered for field. The closest to this type was the
Browning Olmpic Medalist. That was priced so most shooters could buy one. I'm
not bad mouthing S&W 41 or the Hi-Standards & Colts in this bracket, the aren't
in same class. If you have the chance to shot one of these you will realize what
accuracy is.


Sevens

February 15, , PM

If the T/C Contender was wiped out of the running in the first post, I would think that multi-thousand dollar Olympic competition free pistols would also be out of this conversation.

In the handguns that I own, I would probably imagine that it's a K-frame S&W, but the truth is that while it's close I can do better with my


trigger

February 15, , PM

The Hammerli in my experience is the most accurate I've ever shot. Note the 25 meter (27 yards), 5 round factory test target that accompanied this one:

http://itinypic.com/2dc5vu8.jpg




As much as I like the Ruger Mks, I've never found one that would compete on the same level with a Model 41, nor have I found a Model 41 that could outshoot a Hammerli Trailside. A well-mannered Model 17 will give any of the small bores a run for their money.

Of the larger calibers, a Model 27 or 19 comes to mind for wheelguns, while the CZ 75 TS and Sig X5 are highly competitive. Of the s I've owned over the years, it would be a toss up between a Nighthawk Talon and a Clark Hardball gun. My odd new favorites are two slightly massaged plastic guns: a Glock 24 and an M&P 9 Pro.


saleen

February 15, , PM

Drm50 wrote: The closest to this type was the Browning Olmpic Medalist. That was priced so most shooters could buy one. I'm not bad mouthing S&W 41 or the Hi-Standards & Colts in this bracket, the aren't in same class.

I have to respectfully disagree as to High Standards (at least the ones I own) compared to Browning Medalist. I have a Medalist and an International Medalist. They are both fine pistols but I would not say they are more accurate than the High Standard. The S&W 41 and Colt may be a different story as the one 41 I had did not shoot as well as the Brownings.

http://iphotobucket.com/albums/tt98/saleen/22%20Pistols/Brownings3.jpg


BigJimP

February 15, , PM

I'll vote for the Freedom Arms revolvers

I have a model 83 ( large frame ) Freedom Arms in magand it's easily capable of 1" groups at 25 yds

but 1" groups at 25yds is also capable from a couple of my Wilson Combat full sized 'sand probably the Sig X-Five L-1 model


AustinTX

February 16, , AM

I have a model 83 ( large frame ) Freedom Arms in magand it's easily capable of 1" groups at 25 yds

Oh, it's capable of a lot better than that, I assure you.


Quincy

February 16, , AM

Ok, I really didn't think about competition pistols, but obviously, they would shoot rings around anything else. I'm thinking primarily about handguns that are general purpose, something you could carry in a holster possibly, etc. Part of my thought behind the question is in general could 's compete with a good revolver and are there other platforms that may not be as popular at the moment, but would certainly be competitive. It wasn't that long ago (late '70's) that the was all but gone from the scene. Thanks.


BigJimP

February 16, , PM

Sure, part of my point was that a well made and well tuned will shoot very good groups.

My primary carry gun is a Wilson Combat 5", ( CQB model ) in acpand I practice a lot with a Wilson Combat Protector model, 5" gun in 9mmthey are both guaranteed with 1" groups at 25 yds / 99% of the time, I will carry one of these two Wilson's. They are both well madebut I don't consider them competition guns / they're everyday guns,

Sig X-Five L-1 model is about 55 oz with a full mag in it / mine is chambered in S&Wand while I have a Kramer horsehide leather holster for it / and will draw and fire it at the rangeits too heavy to carry even with a good belt and holster ( and I'm 6'5" and lbs) The X-Five L-1 model was really created as a race / or competition gun ( not in my hands ) fun to shoot / but not a carry gun.

I have a holster for my mod 83 Freedom Arms as well it has a 4 3/4" octagonal barreland its close to 55 oz as welland too heavy to carry as well. Again its fun to shoot but not a carry gun in my view.

But since accuracy was your pointyes, there are a number of very good 's out there that will compete with good revolvers for accuracy. I'm 65 yrs old so in my age group / the has lived on as a primary weapon / it sure didn't go away with most of us, in my age group, in the 70's, or 80's, or 90's, etc


saleen

February 17, , AM

While not a top competition pistol, I was working up loads for a Sig P and it was shooting really well at 25 yards, with the best loads in the 1/2" center-to-center range. I don't have much experience with Sigs but this impressed me.

http://iphotobucket.com/albums/tt98/saleen/Center%20Fire%20Pistol/Sig/SigTgtSWC-1_zps8eb6a1d5.jpg


Jim Watson

February 17, , AM

NRA said a Freedom Arms was the most accurate handgun ever tested for American Rifleman, NRA and ISU target pistols included.

MY most accurate pistol is an elderly High Standard Supermatic Citation Military.
My most accurate centerfire auto is a Colt Combat Commander with full accurizing treatment. I have not Ransom rested a good revolver but a friend's Taurus is amazingly accurate with WWB s.


dgludwig

February 17, , PM

In terms of "factory" centerfire pistols, my vote goes to the Smith & Wesson Model 52, chambered in Special. Mine has proven to be extremely accurate and the superb trigger pull helps the shooter derive all the intrinsic accuracy the pistol is capable of. I also have a Smith Model , chambered in ACP, that is very accurate.


44 AMP

February 17, , PM

Normal handgun mind you, not a T/C Contender or Remington bolt.

Contenders and the XP ARE normal handguns!!!!
They just aren't repeaters.

IF you are going to exclude them, you ought to exclude all the purpose built target pistols, too.

But overall, the question of which one is the most accurate in a rest hardly matters other than as interesting information. We don't shoot them that way, and a 1/2MOA gun in the hands of a 3MOA shooter is a 3MOA gun.

I can get 5 shots overlapping from my Colt Govt model acp at 25yds. That's a " group, but all holes are touching.

I have gotten a 1" 5 shot 25yd group with a Auto Mag. (and if you think is easy, try it!:D) I've had similar results with a Desert Eagle.

The Hammerli in my experience is the most accurate I've ever shot.
I bet! Nice test group, too! Are you aware that match pistol is banned in several states because it is legally an "assault weapon"?


Jim Watson

February 18, , AM

But overall, the question of which one is the most accurate in a rest hardly matters other than as interesting information. We don't shoot them that way, and a 1/2MOA gun in the hands of a 3MOA shooter is a 3MOA gun.

But a 3 MOA gun in the hands of a 3 MOA shooter is a 6 MOA gun.


JohnKSa

February 18, , AM

It's not that bad actually. Because both errors are random and each is composed of a random direction and random magnitude, a straight addition won't provide the resulting overall error. The odds are virtually nil that both shooter and gun errors will be in the same direction and at maximum magnitude at the same time to add up to the worst case in one direction. When you factor in the necessity for that extremely rare event to repeat in exactly the opposite direction just a few shots later to make the full 6 MOA group it makes it even less likely than virtually nil.

I don't want to pull my probability books out, but suffice it to say that a 3MOA gun and a 3MOA shooter will combine to make groups significantly bigger than 3MOA but significantly smaller than 6MOA.


44 AMP

February 18, , AM

see, there really is a time when 3+3 = <6! :rolleyes:


darkgael

February 18, , AM

Just for the recordthe national record for 20 shots slow Fire with a at 50 yardsone hand unsupportedis X by B.D. Harmon (10/30/). Using a 10 ring is ", Xring is ".
A gifted shooter and an accurate gun.
For comparisonthe record for the same course of fire with a is X, held jointly by two men. No idea what pistols were used.

The national record for 90 shots with a (20 at 50 yds slow fire, 20 at 25 yds. Timed fire, 20 at 25 yds. Rapid fire and then 30 shots (10 slow, 10 timed, 10 rapid) is X out of a possible X. All one hand unsupported.
For the record is X.
Pete


Sevens

February 18, , PM

Not attempting to start an argument but trying to glean more info

Is it safe to say that if a guy can run up the same (or quite similar) score with a handgun punching " holes as the guy punching " holes, the performance must be considered better due to the smaller hole?

Or would it be more accurate to say (haha, pun there) that you simply can't compare them directly and the final answer should be that either or both are excellent feats but making a distinction isn't possible?


MrBorland

February 18, , PM

Is it safe to say that if a guy can run up the same (or quite similar) score with a handgun punching " holes as the guy punching " holes, the performance must be considered better due to the smaller hole?

All else equal, I'd say so, but my bet is that the recoil difference equals out the feat.

BTW, in Run&Gun competition, I've known some who shoot downloaded S&W instead of 9mm for this very reason. In a typical match, you can always count on a few rounds getting ohhh sooo close, but not quite touching a scoring perforation, whereas a bigger hole would touch the perf.


rcase

February 19, , PM

I know a guy who hits clay pigeons no problem one handed with a Colt Gold Cup However, my dad swears the most accurate handgun he's ever had was his Colt Python, which he sadly sold:(


Skans

February 19, , PM

Sig X-Five in 9mm.

My Sig X-Five 9mm will beat my custom STI 45acp with Schuemann ported/hybrid barrel/slide, especially at 75 feet.

I've never shot a Sig P, but its hard for me to see how I could possibly shoot a P better than my X-Five.


98 swift

February 19, , PM

Nobody mentioned the S&W model That is my most accurate handgun. Not that I am that good of a shot.


Buzzcook

February 19, , PM

But overall, the question of which one is the most accurate in a rest hardly matters other than as interesting information. We don't shoot them that way, and a 1/2MOA gun in the hands of a 3MOA shooter is a 3MOA gun.

If someone shoots 3moa they're a darn good shot " at 25yds.

My M is probably my most accurate handgun, just edging out my Ruger Mk II


PzGren

February 20, , AM

JamesK is right again. The mare's leg wins.

Hämmerli compared to a The also leaves my behind. It is pure sports equipment.

http://iphotobucket.com/albums/z/Andyd/imagejpg1_zps06ea.jpg


Shooter

February 20, , PM

My S&W 10 shot, 4inch is my own personal most accurate.Loves Fed. Lightning solids. I hit things with it that i shouldn't be able to. Uncanny.:D


micromontenegro

February 20, , PM

There's the Hämmerli

http://iphotobucket.com/albums/ll/micromontenegro/c1bcffd99_zpsf81ejpg (http://sphotobucket.com/user/micromontenegro/media/c1bcffd99_zpsf81ejpg.html)


GunLuvr01

March 5, , PM

The most accurate pistols I have ever shot would either be a Sig P, Browning BDM, or CZ P


Kosh

March 5, , PM

Excluding the "weird" pistols, I'D bet on a factory-tuned S&W M14 or an M target ACP from the same company. Never shot a Freedom Arms revolver enough to fully evaluate it, but they could surprise me. When shooting slow-fire no--rest at long distances, I shot groups and made hits with a couple of Colt Pythons at ranges exceeding yards that took far more effort to make with other similar revolvers. I just couldn't get the Pythons to shoot as well as the others at shorter distances where speed mattered.

At 25 yards from a rest, where speed is not an issue, a Python might take the prize.


BOBA FETT

March 5, , PM

my most accurate handgun is my smith and wesson 9mm in a revolver this size is very accurate and comfortable


TheFineLine

March 5, , PM

The most accurate revolver I've personally shot is a + 5".

The most accurate semi-auto I've personally shot is a Para Pro Custom (Gasp! Not a Para?!!!)


darkgael

March 5, , PM

"Weird pistols"?????
Someone posted pictures of weird pistols????
Who? What? Where?

Pete


Boncrayon

March 6, , PM

I've seen this question before, and suggest most barrels are accurate if maintained, and will always shoot straight in the direction of the muzzle. Accuracy is in the hands of the shooter. If practiced with NRA guidelines, and you squeeze the trigger rather than pulling the trigger, holding your breath (breathing) before the firing, and follow through, you will be accurate.


dgludwig

March 10, , PM

All true, Boncrayon, but the op is interested in opinions as to which handguns are the most accurate. No matter how well you squeeze the trigger, practice breath control or maintain the proper sight alignment, some handguns are intrinsically more accurate than others. The op (and others) are interested in learning which ones are.


TimSr

March 11, , AM

I think you are going to have to beyond 25 yards to sort them out. A number of them can make one hole at that distance. My Ruger Redhawk is slightly tighter than my Freedom Arms at yards but not enough to be relevant. I'm sure that a little more work on load development could change that if it was enough to matter to me.


johnwilliamson

March 14, , AM

Interesting so many think revolvers are the most accurate. I would guess that would be if you fire groups from the same chamber as I have previously read from a number of reliable sources that the way revolver cylinders are cut leads to inaccuracy between chambers.
I would think a fixed barrel semi would be a clear winner.

"Production" "factory" might eliminate most of those depending how you define production.


MrBorland

March 14, , AM

Interesting so many think revolvers are the most accurateI would think a fixed barrel semi would be a clear winner.

I said as much in my post, but I wasn't dogmatic about it, and I was comparing revolvers to the most common semi-autos (i.e. without a fixed barrel):

As far as platforms, revolvers and semi-autos each have their compromises, but generally, revolvers get a slight nod for out-of-the box accuracy.


psalm7

March 14, , AM

The most accurate hand gun I ever owned was a Ruger single six in HR Magnum . Its one of the guns I traded off and wish I did'nt . I was young and impreshinable at the time and let others comments that it was just a popgun get to me .


Gdawgs

March 14, , PM

Here's the most accurate one I have in the safe, a Remington XP in 35 Remington. Probably considered cheating my some. The upper group was 4 shots at 50 yards, then I biffed the last shot. I haven't stretched its legs out to yds yet.
http://iphotobucket.com/albums/gg/g_lauinger/IMG_jpg

Then I have this guy(actually my dad's). An E. Arthur Brown chambered in mm BRM (Bench Rest Magnum). I just loaded some rounds up for it, but haven't had a chance to try it out. They are supposedly extremely accurate.
http://iphotobucket.com/albums/gg/g_lauinger/DSCF_zpsteh5zuow.jpg


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SIG Sauer P

Semi-automatic pistol

SIG Sauer P
Sig Sauer P Modular Handgun System.jpg

SIG Sauer P

TypeSemi-automatic pistol
Place&#;of&#;originUnited States
In&#;service–present
DesignerAdrian Thomele, Thomas Metzger, Michael Mayerl, Ethan Lessard
Designed
ManufacturerSIG Sauer Inc., Exeter, New Hampshire, U.S.; SIG Sauer GmbH, Eckernförde, Germany
Produced–present
VariantsFull-size, Carry, Compact, and Subcompact, four calibers, three grip sizes for each, Tacops, RX and X-Five models, Custom Shop Limited Editions
Mass&#;g (&#;oz) P Full Size (incl. magazine)
&#;g (&#;oz) P Carry (incl. magazine)
&#;g (&#;oz) P Compact (incl. magazine)
&#;g (&#;oz) P Subcompact (incl. magazine)
Length&#;mm (&#;in) P Full Size
&#;mm (&#;in) P Carry
&#;mm (&#;in) P Compact
&#;mm (&#;in) P Subcompact
Barrel&#;length&#;mm (&#;in) P Full Size
98&#;mm (&#;in) P Carry
98&#;mm (&#;in) P Compact
91&#;mm (&#;in) P Subcompact
Width&#;mm (&#;in) P Full Size
&#;mm (&#;in) P Carry
&#;mm (&#;in) P Compact
33&#;mm (&#;in) P Subcompact
Height&#;mm (&#;in) P Full Size
&#;mm (&#;in) P Carry
&#;mm (&#;in) P Compact
&#;mm (&#;in) P Subcompact

Caliber9×19mm Parabellum
SIG
S&W
ACP
ActionShort recoil operated, locked breech SIG Sauer System
Rate&#;of&#;fireSemi-automatic
Muzzle&#;velocity ft/s ( m/s)[1]
Feed&#;systemP Full Size and P Full Size RX models:

Tacops Full: Range: meters

Carry:

Tacops Carry:

Compact:

RX Compact:

Subcompact:

SightsFixed iron sights, front—blade, rear—notch, with optional tritium night inserts, Optical Reflex sight on RX models, high sights on RX and Tacops models

The SIG Sauer P is a modularsemi-automatic pistol made by SIG Sauer, Inc. of Exeter, New Hampshire, and SIG Sauer GmbH of Eckernförde, Germany. It is a further development of the SIG Sauer P, utilizing a striker-fired mechanism in lieu of a double action onlyhammer system. The P can be chambered in 9×19mm Parabellum, SIG, S&W, and ACP, and can be easily converted from one caliber to another—a change from SIG to S&W requires only a barrel change; a change between 9mm to SIG or S&W and vice versa are accomplished using a caliber exchange kit.

The P chambered in 9×19mm Parabellum was introduced in the North American market on 15 January , followed by the ACP compact model at the SHOT Show in January [2] On 19 January , it was announced that a customized version of the SIG Sauer P had won the United States Army's XM17 Modular Handgun System competition. The full-sized model will be known as the M17 and the carry-sized model will be known as the M[3]

Design details[edit]

Features[edit]

The P was designed to be ambidextrous in handling, sporting a catch lever on both sides of the slide and user-reversible magazine release, and all other operating controls are designed so they can be operated from either side. The firearm can be field stripped with no tools. Additionally, the firearm can also be field stripped without depressing the trigger, an additional safety feature to prevent negligent discharge of the weapon.[4]

SIG Sauer P fire control unit

Trigger system[edit]

The P trigger is available in standard (solid) and tabbed (with trigger safety).[5]

M17 and M18[edit]

Main article: SIG Sauer M17

The requirements the new US Army handgun included the idea that an existing handgun model would be preferred for the Modular Handgun System Request for Proposal, known as the XM17 Procurement. SIG Sauer submitted a P with a number of modifications and submitted them for the XM17 Modular Handgun System competition.

Modifications include:

  • inch (99&#;mm) barrel length in carry size pistol
  • inch (&#;mm) barrel length in full size pistol
  • Ambidextrous thumb safety
  • chambered in 9×19mm Parabellum (can be adapted to fire larger calibers like SIG and S&W)
  • Improved slide sub-assembly to capture small components when disassembled
  • Improved trigger "mud flap" to prevent foreign debris from entering the pistol action
  • Loaded chamber indicator
  • Pistols chambered in 9mm can feature a round magazine as standard with optional round extended magazines available.[6]
  • Slide cut-out to facilitate the addition of a reflex sight. (This is the slide from the RX Series)[7]

On 19 January , it was announced that the SIG Sauer P MHS variant had won the United States Military's Modular Handgun System trials. The P will be known as the M17 (full size) and M18 (compact) in U.S. Military service. Though the pistol will remain chambered in 9 x 19mm Parabellum rather than a larger caliber, the contract allows the services to procure SIG Sauer's proposed XM Full Metal Jacket and XM Special Purpose ammunition.[8][9] The ammunition chosen to go with the pistol is a "Winchester jacketed hollow point" round.

In May , the Army announced that the first unit that will receive the M17 would be the st Airborne Division by the end of the year. At the same time, the rest of the U.S. Armed Forces revealed they also intend to acquire the handgun, making it the standard sidearm for the entire U.S. military. The services plan to procure up to , weapons in total; , for the Army, , for the Air Force, 61, for the Navy (XM18 compact version only), and 35, for the Marines.[10][11]

On 17 November , soldiers of the st Airborne received the first XM17 and XM18 pistols, with over 2, handguns delivered. The XM17 has better accuracy and ergonomics and tighter dispersion than the M9. It will also be fielded more widely, being issued down to squad and fireteam leaders; while special forces would dual-arm all of its members with a pistol and rifle, previously junior leaders in regular infantry units were excluded from carrying sidearms but policy was changed to give them more choices and options in close quarters battle situations. All Army units are planned to have the M9 replaced with the M17 within a decade.[12][13]

Reliability[edit]

Initial production models of the P were found to have a "drop safety" issue if the firearm was dropped at a specific angle, potentially causing it to discharge. SIG Sauer has since refitted the P to make it drop safe and offers a voluntary upgrade program for early Ps.

Further information: §&#;Drop firing problem

Apart from initial teething issues, the P has proven itself to be an extremely reliable pistol for civilian, law enforcement and military use. Many police departments in the US and around the world have started issuing their officers Ps.[14][15][16][17]

A Canadian special forces counterterrorism unit, Joint Task Force 2 (JTF-2), withdrew the P following a misfire that injured a soldier during a training exercise in November ; JTF-2 was the only Canadian military unit using the P[18] A full enquiry exonerated the pistol and in June found that the weapon was not responsible for the accidental discharge.[19]

Variants[edit]

X Series Models[edit]

SIG Sauer P RX (with Romeo 1 optical reflex sight)

The X Series lineup includes the following grip module sizes:

  • Carry size – Fits any SIG P compact-size slide in 9mm, S&W, and SIG. The full-size slide also fits the carry-size grip module without any part of the recoil spring showing.
  • Full size – Fits any SIG P full-size slide in 9mm, S&W, and SIG

In January , SIG Sauer announced the XCompact handgun as the newest entry in their X Series lineup.[20]

  • Compact size – As of March , the P XCompact is available in 9mm only.[21]

The XCompact size grip module is the smallest grip module SIG currently carries, as they have not come out with a subcompact X Series grip module to date.

XFive Legion[edit]

Released in late July/early August the XFIVE Legion is considered the flagship of the P platform that brings added weight and features. The TXG grip module has tungsten infused directly into the polymer along with an attachable magazine well. It comes standard with Henning group aluminum base pads and a skeletonized flat trigger. The complete 9mm slide is cut and ported to reduce weight and assist in recoil and feeding abilities. It also has a slide plate for optic capabilities.[22]

PMAX[edit]

The SIG PMAX is a sporterised variant of the P, designed in for use by competition shooters. The pistol is made from tungsten, weighs &#;oz ( kilograms), has a 5-inch (&#;mm) match grade barrel, and an overall length of inches (&#;mm).[23][24]

Drop firing problem[edit]

In late July , the Dallas Police Department in Texas instructed all personnel to stop carrying the P pending an investigation.[25] There were concerns that the firearm may discharge when it is dropped and the back of the slide hits the ground at a degree angle. The problem was thought to be related to the trigger weight; some triggers were heavy enough that they essentially continued to move due to inertia after the gun hit the ground. Internet publications, such as TheTruthAboutGuns.com, conducted independent tests that appeared to confirm potential drop firings (at a 40 percent rate).[26]

On 8 August , SIG Sauer issued a notice that they would upgrade all Ps to address the issue.[27] The upgrade is described on the company's website as: "an alternate design that reduces the physical weight of the trigger, sear, and striker while additionally adding a mechanical disconnector."[28]

Lawsuits[edit]

Steyr Arms, Inc. v. Sig Sauer, Inc.[edit]

In May , Steyr Mannlicher filed a patent infringement lawsuit against SIG Sauer.[29] Steyr refers to their patent US (filed in and approved in ),[30] which is for a handgun with a removable chassis. Steyr Arms requested a preliminary and permanent injunction against SIG Sauer selling any such firearms. On 11 March , the United States District Court for the District of New Hampshire found that SIG Sauer did not infringe Steyr's patents, and dismissed all motions.[31]

David Hartley, et al. v. Sig Sauer, Inc.[edit]

A lawsuit related to the above noted drop firing problem and filed in April in the United States District Court for the Western District of Missouri led to a class action settlement in February [32][33][34] Elements of the agreement include:[33]

  • Communication that the mechanical disconnector added via the P voluntary upgrade program "provides an additional level of safety," to be advised via the SIG Sauer website and direct customer communication
  • Extension of the voluntary upgrade program for 24 months past the settlement date
  • For anyone who submitted their P to the voluntary upgrade program and was charged for repairs, a refund of such charges
  • For anyone who submitted their P to the voluntary upgrade program and was told it was unrepairable, a refund of the purchase price or a new P

A class action settlement form is available on the SIG Sauer website.[35]

Derick Ortiz v. Sig Sauer, Inc.[edit]

In September , an Arizona gun owner who purchased a P in September initiated a class action lawsuit.[36] It claims that SIG Sauer "continued to sell the flawed gun to the public",[36] and that the upgrade offered "would still not fully compensate him for the significantly diminished resale value of his pistol."[37] In March , judge Joseph N. Laplante denied SIG Sauer's motion to dismiss the case.[38][37] In May , a trial notice was issued, with pretrial statements due on 5 October [39]

Users[edit]

  • &#;Denmark: Regular and concealed carry versions have been chosen to replace the ageing M/49 Neuhausen.[44] Deliveries set to be completed by the end of [45]
  • &#;France: 9mm Compact variant, replacing the Ruger SP revolver.[46]
  • &#;Norway: X-Series chosen by Norwegian Police Service as the standard issue sidearm for select agencies, replacing the SIG Sauer P and Heckler & Koch P[47]
  • &#;Thailand: Royal Thai Police purchased , SIG Sauer P pistols in December [48][49][50]
  • &#;United States: On 19 January , the P was chosen to replace the Beretta M9 as the United States Armed Forces' main service pistol in response to the request for a Modular Handgun System (MHS). Also known as M17 with the Air Force and Marine Corps to be equipped with the M[8][51][52] Also used by Immigration and Customs Enforcement,[53]Cambridge Police Department (Massachusetts),[54]Chicago Police Department,[55]Hawaii Department of Public Safety,[56]Oklahoma Highway Patrol[57]Pasco County Sheriff's Office (Florida),[58]Texas Department of Public Safety,[59]North Miami Police Department, and Virginia State Police.[60]

References[edit]

  1. ^https://www.sigsauer.com/press-releases/sig-sauer-introduces-mmm-p-ammunition/
  2. ^"SHOT Show SIG SAUER adds subcompact and Caliber options to P family". miltechmag.com. Retrieved 28 February
  3. ^OMelveny, Sean. "Army Picks Sig Sauer's P Handgun to Replace M9 Service Pistol". military.com. Retrieved 28 February
  4. ^"P Pistol - Officer.com". officer.com. Retrieved 28 February
  5. ^"Review: SIG Sauer P Pistol". shootingillustrated.com. Retrieved 11 March
  6. ^Times, Military. "GearScout". militarytimes.com. Retrieved 28 February
  7. ^"Details on the U.S. Army's new Sig Sauer M17 Sidearm". tacticalcache.com. Retrieved 11 March
  8. ^ ab"Contracts Press Operations Release No: CR". defense.gov. U.S. Department of Defense. 19 January Retrieved 13 February
  9. ^Army Confirms 9mm for Modular Handgun System - Kitup.Military.com, 26 January
  10. ^Army Names First Unit to Receive Service's New Pistol - Military.com, 3 May
  11. ^MHS Update: Services Embrace Army's New Sidearm - Kitup.Military.com, 3 May
  12. ^In a first, the Army's new handgun will be issued to team leaders - Armytimes.com, 29 November
  13. ^Army Explains New Dual-Arming Policy for Modular Handgun System - Military.com, 1 December
  14. ^"Milwaukee Police Chose Sig Sauer P as New Duty Pistol". Guns.com. Retrieved 9 April
  15. ^"Newington (NH) Police Department Transitions to SIG Sauer P Pistol - Weapons - POLICE Magazine". www.policemag.com. Retrieved 9 April
  16. ^"Department Approved Handguns and Ammunition". directives.chicagopolice.org. Retrieved 9 April
  17. ^Johnson, Duncan (23 May ). "Lloyd Harbor, NY Police Department Transitions to SIG SAUER P". AmmoLand. Retrieved 9 April
  18. ^ abBrewster, Murray (4 February ). "Special Forces pulls new pistols from service after soldier injured in misfire". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 4 February
  19. ^ abBrewster, Murray (30 June ). "Pistol misfire that injured soldier was an unpredictable accident: special forces report". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
  20. ^"Sig XCompact - Small Gun Parts"(PDF).
  21. ^"P XCOMPACT". sigsauer.com. Retrieved 13 March
  22. ^"Sig P X-FIVE Legion - Small Gun Parts". Small Gun Parts.
  23. ^C, Luke (19 February ). "SIG Sauer Introduces the PMAX Competition Optimized Pistol". The Firearm Blog.
  24. ^"PMAX". Sig Sauer.
  25. ^"BREAKING: P Recall Issued By Dallas Police - Prohibited From Duty Till Repaired - The Firearm Blog". 2 August
  26. ^"BREAKING: TTAG Test Shows P Striker-Fired Pistols Are Not Drop-Safe - The Truth About Guns". 8 August
  27. ^"SIG SAUER Issues Voluntary Upgrade of P Pistol - Sig Sauer".
  28. ^"P Voluntary Upgrade Program - U.S. Consumers". sigsauer.com. Retrieved 12 March
  29. ^"Steyr Files Lawsuit Against SIG SAUER, Demands Injunction Against P for Patent Infringement - The Truth About Guns". 5 May
  30. ^"Pistol, whose housing is composed of plastic". Retrieved 11 July &#; via Google Patents.
  31. ^"SIG SAUER, Inc. Wins Patent Infringement Case from Steyr Arms". sigsauer.com (Press release). 11 March Retrieved 13 March
  32. ^"Hartley et al v. Sig Sauer, Inc. et al". pacermonitor.com. Missouri Western District Court. Retrieved 16 March
  33. ^ ab"Settlement Agreement"(PDF). sigsauer.com. January Retrieved 16 March
  34. ^"Hartley v. Sig Sauer, Inc. Class Action Agreement". sigsauer.com. Retrieved 16 March
  35. ^"SIG Sauer P Class Action Settlement Claim Form"(PDF). sigsauer.com. March Retrieved 16 March
  36. ^ abBookman, Todd (30 September ). "SIG Sauer Sued Again Over Potential 'Drop Fire' Defect with P Pistol". NHPR.org. Retrieved 26 March
  37. ^ abLaplante, Joseph N. (23 March ). "Opinion No. DNH "(PDF). United States District Court for the District of New Hampshire. Retrieved 26 March &#; via govinfo.gov.
  38. ^"Judge Declines to Dismiss Proposed SIG Class-Action Suit". U.S. News & World Report. AP. 25 March Retrieved 26 March
  39. ^"Ortiz v. Sig Sauer, Inc. (cv)". courtlistener.com. Retrieved 27 March
  40. ^Doug, E (20 July ). "Police Guns of the World: South America – Part 2". TFB. Retrieved 21 July
  41. ^"Polícia Civil do Ceará recebe mais mil novas pistolas de calibre 9 mm". Polícia Civil (in Portuguese). 9 January Retrieved 14 July
  42. ^"Governo do Ceará entrega quase 4 mil armas e amplia Irso em quatro vezes para garantir operações diárias da Polícia". Polícia Militar (in Portuguese). 23 October Retrieved 14 July
  43. ^"Major foreign guns purchase by Brazilian LE market -". The Firearm Blog. 8 August Retrieved 14 July
  44. ^"Forsvarets nye pistol: Sig Sauer". forsvaret.dk. 12 April
  45. ^"Den nye pistol er valgt". fmi.dk. 12 April
  46. ^Y.C. (26 August ). "🇫🇷 Une nouvelle arme de service pour les agents de la SUGE, la police ferroviaire". Actu17 - L′info Police Sécurité Terrorisme. (in French). Retrieved 27 December
  47. ^"Norwegian Police Adopt SIG SAUER P X-Series as Service Pistol". 8 November
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External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SIG_Sauer_P


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