War has always been a dangerous business, bringing injury, wounds, and death, and — until recently — often disease. What has changed over time, most dramatically in the last 150 or so years, is the care these casualties receive and who provides it. Medical services have become highly organized and are state sponsored. Diseases are now prevented through vaccination and good sanitation. Sedation now ameliorates pain, and antibiotics combat infection. Wounds that once meant amputation or death no longer do so. Transfers from the field to more-capable hospitals are now as swift as aircraft can make them. The mental consequences of war are now seen as genuine illnesses and treated accordingly, rather than punished to the extreme. Likewise, treatment of those disabled by war and of veterans generally has changed markedly — along with who supplies these and other benefits. This book looks at the history of how humanity has cared for its war casualties, from ancient times through the aftermath of World War II. For each historical period, the author examines the care the sick and wounded received in the field and in hospitals, the care given to the disabled veteran and his dependents, and who provided that care and how. He shows how the lessons of history have informed the American experience over time. Finally, the author sums up this history thematically, focusing on changes in the nature and treatment of injuries, organization of services on and off the battlefield, the role of the state in providing care, and the invisible wounds of war.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Looking to the Past for Lessons . . . to Apply in the Future
Evolution of the European System of Providing for Casualties: Greece, Rome, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance
Evolution of the European System of Providing for Casualties in the Age of Enlightenment: France and Britain as the Antecedents of the American System of Care
The American System of Providing for the Wounded Evolves
The Civil War
From the Civil War to the World War
The World War
World War II
Summary: What Happened? — What Have We Learned? — How Did We Get Here?
Military Personnel and Casualties from Principal U.S. Wars
"This comprehensive and well-written volume chronicles military medicine throughout history as the context for a thorough discussion of the American experience in providing care from the battlefield to rehabilitation. Highly recommended for the serious student and the casual reader interested in military medicine!"
- Ronald R. Blanck, Former Surgeon General of the Army
"So often it's remarked that we fail to learn from history — but too frequently there's no good history book from which to learn. One of the several issues where that challenge arises is how we treat those who fall in battle. Bernard Rostker corrects this with his Providing for the Casualties of War. It reminds us that there are few truly new problems — and it instructs us on the successes and failures of the solutions tried before. I would have valued being able to turn to it in the days after 9/11, and I am confident that all those now responsible for these matters will want to read it carefully. Rostker has performed a true public service."
- David Chu, Former Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness
"Veterans' benefits compose one of the most important, expensive, and least understood parts of the American welfare state. Unlike other Western nations, the United States runs a separate medical system for its wounded warriors. By excavating the origins and telling the story of the development of medical care for veterans through World War II with deep research and remarkable clarity, Bernard Rostker has performed an invaluable service not only for the military but, as well, for all students of the history of American social policy."
- Michael B. Katz, Walter H. Annenberg Professor of History, University of Pennsylvania
"Bernard Rostker has achieved a masterly combination of both historical breadth and scholarly depth in this much needed history of combat medicine, no easy task. This first volume, of a projected two volume study, frames the dilemma of a military unprepared for war as it confronts the inadequate casualty treatment aspects of warfare. This excellent work is enhanced by numerous charts, graphs, tables, and photographs."
- James Banks, Director, Crile Archives Center for History Education, Western Campus Cuyahoga Community College
The research described in this report was prepared for the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD). The research was conducted within the RAND National Defense Research Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by OSD, the Joint Staff, the Unified Combatant Commands, the Navy, the Marine Corps, the defense agencies, and the defense Intelligence Community.
This report is part of the RAND Corporation Monograph series. RAND monographs present major research findings that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors. All RAND monographs undergo rigorous peer review to ensure high standards for research quality and objectivity.
Permission is given to duplicate this electronic document for personal use only, as long as it is unaltered and complete. Copies may not be duplicated for commercial purposes. Unauthorized posting of RAND PDFs to a non-RAND Web site is prohibited. RAND PDFs are protected under copyright law. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit the RAND Permissions page.
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- Copyright: RAND Corporation
- Availability: Available
- Print Format: Paperback
- Paperback Pages: 324
- List Price: $32.95
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- Paperback ISBN/EAN: 9780833078353
- Document Number: MG-1164-OSD
- Year: 2013
- Copyright: RAND Corporation
- Availability: Available
- Print Format: Hardcover
- Hardcover Pages: 324
- List Price: $39.95
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- Document Number: MG-1164-OSD
- Year: 2013
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The data set that drives this visualization will continue to be updated, and we are always looking for volunteers.
Much of the underlying sources are similar to those listed in the World War 2 Casualties Wikipedia Article. For itemized list of data entries, you can view the Google Fusion table.
Post-WWII statistics were sourced from the The Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP).
About the Series
Depending on how much interest is generated from this pilot episode, we would like to continue this project as a series. Future episodes would explore other trends of war and peace - from drones and terrorism to democracy and peacekeeping.
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EM View: Casualties of War – October 2018
Trading blows: The phony war is over as the US-China row worsens. Source: Mike_Sheridan/gettyimages
Download your report here
Following another sell-off, emerging market currencies have stabilised over the past few weeks, but with the trade war escalating, EM FX is not out of the woods yet. The fear now is that the US-China sparring has morphed into the kind of slugfest from which either party could find it difficult to retreat.
The trade war between the world’s two largest economies could disrupt the global value chain and spell a slowdown in world trade. Elevated uncertainty from the trade war adds to the already dangerous cocktail of balance sheet reductions from the Fed, domestic political clouds and other US sanctions. The result is a murky outlook for EM FX.
A fresh round of EM sell-offs, induced by the trade war, would likely hit the Asian currencies the hardest, especially the KRW, TWD and SGD, as they are small and open economies with high reliance on Chinese demand.
CNY: Breaking seven
As a new tactic, the PBoC is keeping its currency intervention gunpowder dry for
the battles ahead; this will likely buoy the USD/CNY, even to the psychologically
important level of 7.0.
RUB: Not ready to surrender
The pressure on the RUB has substantially eased but sanctions risks still can’t be
dismissed all together. Optimism is fragile and can quickly be shattered by
hostile rhetoric. But strong fundamentals ensure that new pressure episodes are
likely to be short-lived.
PLN: Trade war showing its face in exports
The zloty’s primary driver remains the overall market sentiment. Longer out,
politics and uncertainty about global trade are risk factors pointing to a
moderate slowdown in growth.
In focus – BRL: Get ready for the “Tropical Trump”
The fate of the BRL is dependent on the outcome of the presidential election on
Sunday, as Brazil needs reforms to stabilise public finances. However, market
favourite Bolsonaro is only ‘a lesser evil’, making the BRL vulnerable in the long
run irrespective of the outcome.
FX hedging considerations, the EM Traffic Light and financial forecasts are also
covered in this publication.
Emerging Markets View: House of Cards – September 2018
Emerging Markets View: Thunderstruck – August 2018
Of war youtube casualties
Casualties of War
When the actual moment of the gang rape arrives, Eriksson refuses to go along. He tries, in a tentative and agonizing way, to argue that "this isn't what it's supposed to be about, over here." Meserve lashes him verbally: He is not loyal to the group, he loves the Cong, he's probably a queer, and so on. Diaz, hearing this, refuses to support Eriksson's stand. Four of the men rape the girl, and later the same four pump bullets into her.
This whole sequence of scenes is harrowing because it makes it so clear how impotent Eriksson's moral values are in the face of a rifle barrel. The other men either never had any qualms about what they are doing, or have lost them in the brutalizing process of combat. They will do exactly what they want to do, and Eriksson is essentially powerless to stop them. The movie makes it clear that when a group dynamic of this sort is at work, there is perhaps literally nothing that a "good" person can do to interrupt it. And its examination of the realities of the situation is what's best about the movie.
What is not so good are the scenes before and after the powerful central material. The movie begins and ends some time after the war, with the Fox character on a train - where he sees an Asian woman who reminds him of the victim. The dialogue he has with this woman in the movie's last scene is so forced and unnatural and tries so hard to cobble an upbeat ending onto a tragic story, that it seems to belong in another movie. I also felt that the aftermath of the crime - Eriksson's attempts to bring charges - developed unevenly.
Confrontations with two commanding officers are effective (they explain, obscenely and profanely, why he has no business pressing charges), but then the outcome seems sketchy and tacked on. Perhaps the movie would have been more effective if it had just recorded the incident and ended as the group returned to base. That much would have contained everything important that the movie has to say. The narrative sandwich around it is simply distracting.
"Casualties of War," written by the playwright David Rabe, is the first film by director Brian De Palma since "The Untouchables." More than most films, it depends on the strength of its performances for its effect - and especially on Penn's performance. If he is not able to convince us of his power, his rage and his contempt for the life of the girl, the movie would not work. He does, in a performance of overwhelming, brutal power. Fox, as his target, plays a character most of us could probably identify with, the person to whom rape or murder is unthinkable, but who has never had to test his values in the crucible of violence. The movie's message, I think, is that in combat human values are lost and animal instincts are reinforced. We knew that already. But the movie makes it inescapable, especially when we reflect that the story is true, and the victim was real.
The thighs, one might say in the lower part of the buttocks or between the legs, buttocks. in general, I could not understand, but the sensations were very pleasant and at the same time I was afraid that she would wake. Up and feel my cock.
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Forward, towards my lips and tongue. I played with her clitoris with my mouth and helped myself with my hand. You looked at this. you and I met eyes.